ZULFAQAR JDMSSH

Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

JIHAD KETENTERAAN : PERBANDINGAN TEORI TAFSIRAN KLASIK DAN MODEN

MILITARY JIHAD: A COMPARATIVE THEORY OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN INTERPRETATION

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohd Yasid 

 

Abstrak

Jihad adalah salah satu tema pokok dalam al-Qur’an. Pembahasan jihad dalam al-Qur’an cukup mewarnai sebagian ayat-ayat al-Qur’an yang diturunkan di Makkah dan Madinah. Hal ini menunjukkan urgensi jihad dalam sejarah pembentukan dan perkembangan syariat Islam. Dengan mengunakan kaedah analisis kandungan, kajian ini mengetengahkan Teori Tafsiran Klasik dan Moden mengenai Peringkat Akhir Jihad Ketenteraan. Pada dasarnya hampir tidak ada perbezaan penafsiran keduanya. Namun, Dari sisi penafsiran Peringkat Akhir Jihad Ketenteraan ini, pentafsir klasik lebih lebih menonjol periwayatan sejarah, hadis maupun asbabul nuzulnya. Sedangkan pentafsir moden lebih menonjolkan sisi yang berkaitan antara ayat-ayat jihad dengan konteks terkini dan penggunaan retorik bahasa. 

 

Abstract

Jihad is one of the principal themes of the Qur'an. The discussion of jihad in the Qur'an just coloring some verses of the Qur'an was revealed in Makkah and Madinah. This shows the urgency of jihad in the history of the formation and development of Islamic law. This study explores the theory of Classic and Modern Interpretation of the Final Stage Jihad Military. Basically there is almost no difference in the interpretation of both. However, the interpretation of the terms of the Final Jihad's military, even more prominent interpreter of classic narration of the history, traditions and Asbabul nuzul. While modern exegetes further highlight the connection between the verses of jihad with the current context and the use of rhetorical language.

 

FAKTOR PEMBENTUKAN TINGKAH LAKU BERAGAMA MENURUT AHLI PSIKOLOGI

FACTORS FOR FORMING RELIGIOUS BEHAVIOR ACCORDING TO PSYCHOLOGISTS

Nor Nazimi Mohd Mustaffa, Amnah Saayah Ismail

 

Abstrak

Tingkah laku beragama adalah tingkah laku yang dilakukan oleh setiap manusia yang mempunyai kepercayaan kepada agama tertentu. Tingkah laku ini dilakukan setiap masa dalam kehidupan seharian mengikut kepercayaan agama yang dianuti. Persoalannya, kenapa dan bagaimana setiap tingkah laku beragama itu terhasil sehingga manusia mengzahirkan tingkah laku tersebut dalam kehidupan seharian mereka. Oleh itu, kertas kerja ini menganalisis punca dan sebab manusia mengzahirkan tingkah laku beragama. Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif melalui pendekatan analisis kandungan dokumen secara reduksi data, penyajian data dan membuat kesimpulan. Kajian ini mensentesis karya klasik Freud dan karya kontemporari daripada Feierman bagi mencapai objektif kajian. Hasil kajian menjelaskan, punca dan sebab tingkah laku beragama adalah naluri manusia. Naluri tersebut adalah interaksi antara pemikiran dan perasaan manusia terhadap persekitaran mereka. Freud menjelaskan, minda sedar dan bawah sedar telah menjadi punca kepada perasaan takut sehingga mengzahirkan tingkah laku beragama. Feierman menyatakan pemikiran terhadap kewujudan Tuhan dan perasaan takut kepada kuasa Tuhan merupakan kecenderungan manusia untuk memenuhi keperluan mereka secara mendalam. Kajian ini telah menjelaskan asal usul dari mana lahirnya tingkah laku beragama yang dizahirkan oleh manusia dalam setiap hari malah setiap masa dilakukan kehidupan seharian mereka.

 

Abstract

Religious behavior is the behavior performed by every human being who has a belief in a particular religion. This behavior is done at all times in daily life according to the religious beliefs practiced. The question is, why and how each religious behavior is produced so that human beings manifest such behavior in their daily lives. Therefore, this paper analyzes the causes and causes of human beings expressing religious behavior. This study uses qualitative methodology through document content analysis approach by data reduction, data presentation and inference. This study synthesizes Freud's classical works and contemporary works from Feierman to achieve the objectives of the study. The results of the study explain, the cause and cause of religious behavior is human instinct. Such instinct is the interaction between human thoughts and feelings towards their environment. Freud explained that the conscious and subconscious mind has been the source of fear to the point of expressing religious behavior. Feierman states that thinking about the existence of God and the fear of God's power are human tendencies to meet their needs in depth. This study has explained the origin of the birth of religious behavior that is manifested by human beings in every day and even every day in their daily lives.  

 

MOBILE PHONE USAGE AND HYGIENE: AWARENESS AND PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS IN MALAYSIA

Aye Aye Mon, Halyna Lugova, Thecican Mathivanan, Aimin Aizat Abdul Aziz, Yehsugi Nagendran, Thiviya Suppiah, G Umayal, Nanthini Sridewi

 

Abstract

The usage of mobile phones has increased dramatically, and phones become an essential accessory in our personal, social and professional life. Mobile phones can act as a reservoir of many pathogenic organisms. Mobile phones are ideal breeding sites for pathogens as they are kept warm and snug in our pockets and handbags. The important factor of contamination is the personal hygiene level. The aim of the study was to conduct a survey to identify the level of awareness about mobile phone microbial contamination and to assess the hygienic practice of its usage among the young adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 mobile phone users. The data were then analysed descriptively. Chi square test was used to assess the associations between variables. Among the participants, 66% reported that they clean their phone less than once a week, and the majority was generally unaware of the infection risks associated with mobile phone usage. Respondents with tertiary education had higher levels of mobile hygiene practices compared to those with primary or secondary education (p<0.0005). Students had higher levels of mobile phone hygiene compared to unemployed and employed respondents (p=0.009). The respondents older than 25 years old had lower levels of mobile phone hygiene (p=0.002). This study suggests that awareness about mobile phone microbial contamination is lacking. Therefore, multimodal awareness programs are needed to reduce the associated risks.

 

FACEBOOK AS AN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING TOOL: THE CASE OF THE MALAYSIAN ARMY

Aida Nasirah Abdullaha, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Nurhana Mohd Rafiuddin, Kalthom Husain, Riduan Yusof 

 

Abstract

Facebook has become increasingly important social media channel, not only in civilian society but also in the military sector. As one of the social media platforms, it can be used as a strategic communication tool for opinion-forming and psychological operations. Facebook is used by big and small organizations to communicate within the public sphere. It can also facilitate communication and interaction with potential recruits, family members, and friends. The Malaysian Army, the biggest component in the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) is aiming to fulfill its vision as a credible Army force in achieving peace and stability for the country. After eighty-six years since its inception, the question rises whether the Malaysian Army remains relevant in communicating information to the general public about security and sovereignty of the nation. Hence, the Malaysian Army optimised its communication strategy by using Facebook to communicate to the people at large in the cyber space. In this study, we conducted a content analysis of the Malaysian Army Facebook to explore its potential in building the influence and empowerment of the Malaysia Army. The results indicated that the the Malaysian Army had moderately operated its Facebook as a communication channel for various military operations and activities, hence it is suggested that they optimize the social media platform to instil the sense of patriotism and the confidence among the people. 

 

PEMBENTUKAN KEPIMPINAN PELAJAR MENERUSI PROGRAM KHIDMAT KOMUNITI DI UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA

FORMATION OF STUDENT LEADERSHIP THROUGH THE COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAMME AT THE NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA

Amnah Saayah Ismail, Nor Nazimi Mohd Mustaffa, Aida Nasirah Abdullah, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Nurhana Mohd Rafiuddin 

 

Abstrak 

Khidmat komuniti bermaksud berkhidmat atau membantu masyarakat sekeliling yang memerlukan bantuan mahupun tunjuk ajar untuk mengurangkan beban mereka. Di Malaysia, peranan mendekati komuniti ini telah dimainkan oleh pelbagai pihak antaranya pihak kerajaan, swasta mahu pun orang perseorangan. Aktiviti ini memberi kesan yang mendalam bukan sahaja kepada pemegang taruh namun masyarakat juga turut terkesan selain individu yang terlibat itu sendiri. Pembudayaan khidmat komuniti turut sama mendapat tempat dalam kalangan warga universiti sama ada kakitangan mahupun para pelajar. Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia tidak terkecuali mengambil inspirasi dari semua pihak di luar sana untuk terlibat sama dalam memberi khidmat kepada komuniti di sekitarnya. Objektif kajian ialah mengenal pasti elemen-elemen yang boleh dibangunkan dalam usaha membentuk kepimpinan pelajar menerusi prograam khidmat komuniti selain meneliti masalah dan cabaran dalam membudayakan khidmat komuniti. Kaedah Penyelidikan yang digunakan dalam penulisan ini ialah berbentuk kualitatif iaitu analisis kandungan dengan menggunakan data-data primer dan sekunder. Dapatan Kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat banyak elemen-elemen program yang boleh dijalankan dalam membudayakan khidmat komuniti di Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia. Program ini dilihat dapat membentuk daya kepimpinan dan kerjasama dalam kalangan pelajar untuk terus mendekati komuniti sekeliling mereka menerusi program-program yang dirancangkan.

 

Abstract

Community service means serving or helping the surrounding community in need or guidance to reduce their burden. In Malaysia, the role of this community has been played by many parties, including government, private and individual. This activity has a profound effect not only on the stakeholders but also the community as well as the individuals involved. Community service culture also has a place among university students and staff alike. The National Defense University of Malaysia is no exception to the inspiration of all parties out there to be involved in serving the community around it. The objective of the study was to identify the elements that can be developed in an effort to build student leadership through community service programs as well as to explore the challenges and challenges of community service culture. The research method used in this paper is qualitative form of content analysis using primary and secondary data. The findings of the study show that there are many elements of program that can be implemented in community service culture at the National Defense University of Malaysia. This program is seen to form leadership and cooperation among students to continue to reach out to the community around them through planned programs.

 

HUBUNGAN ANTARA PENGHAYATAN NILAI INTEGRITI DENGAN PELAKSANAAN SISTEM PENGURUSAN KUALITI MS1900 DI INSTITUSI PENGAJIAN TINGGI SWASTA, MALAYSIA

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF INTEGRITY WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MS1900 IN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING, MALAYSIA

Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed, Azmi Ahmad, Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin, Siti Arni Basir, Burhanuddin Jalal, Mohd Hamran Mohamad, Sayuti Ab Ghani

 

Abstrak

Dewasa kini, banyak organisasi menghadapi cabaran-cabaran kebejatan nilai atau etika moral dalam kalangan pekerja. Isu salahguna kuasa, rasuah, tidak berdisiplin, tidak berintegriti dan sebagainya telah menjadi tumpuan dalam media massa. Justeru, pelaksanaan Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (SPK) berasaskan Syari’ah (MS1900:2014) seharusnya diangkat menjadi agenda utama dan berperanan penting dalam menerapkan nilai-nilai murni bagi setiap individu pekerja di sesebuah organisasi. Tambahan pula, SPK MS1900 ini merupakan satu piawaian pengurusan kualiti patuh Syari’ah yang pertama telah diperkenalkan di Malaysia dan juga di dunia. Oleh itu, kertas ini bertujuan membincangkan hasil kajian penghayatan nilai integriti dalam pelaksanaan MS1900 ini terhadap para pekerja organisasi yang berjaya memperoleh pensijilannya. Metodologi kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk penyelidikan tinjauan secara kuantitatif menerusi borang soal selidik yang dilakukan terhadap 294 responden yang terdiri daripada para pensyarah, pegawai eksekutif dan pegawai bukan eksekutif di sebuah institusi pengajian tinggi swasta (IPTS) di Malaysia. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penghayatan nilai integriti berkadar langsung dan mempunyai hubungan signifikan dengan kejayaan pelaksanaan piawaian tersebut dalam kalangan pekerja. Rumusannya, dapatan kajian ini menjadi satu titik permulaan kepada organisasi lain untuk berusaha memperoleh piawaian MS1900 dengan memberi penekanan kepada nilai integriti agar ia menjadi amalan dalam usaha untuk mematuhi keperluan Syari’ah Islamiyyah pada setiap masa.

 

Abstract

Today, many organizations face challenges to the deterioration of values or moral ethics among employees. The issues of abuse of power, corruption, undiscipline, lack of integrity and so on have become the focus of the mass media. Therefore, the implementation of Quality Management System (QMS) based on Shari'ah (MS1900: 2014) should be raised as the main agenda and play an important role in inculcating good values for each individual employee in an organization. Furthermore, SPK MS1900 is the first Shari’ah-compliant quality management standard that has been introduced in Malaysia and also in the world. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the results of the study of the appreciation of the value of integrity in the implementation of this MS1900 to the employees of the organization who successfully obtained its certification. The methodology of this study uses a quantitative survey research design through a questionnaire conducted on 294 respondents consisting of lecturers, executive officers and non-executive officers in a private institution of higher learning in Malaysia. The findings of the study show that the appreciation of integrity values is directly proportional and has a significant relationship with the successful implementation of these standards among employees. In summary, the findings of this study become a starting point for other organizations to strive to achieve the MS1900 standard by emphasizing the value of integrity so that it becomes a practice in an effort to comply with the requirements of Islamic Shari'ah at all times.

 

THE FORM OF VIOLENCE AGAINST ROHINGNYA WOMEN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT (RTOP)

Hairunnisa Zakaria, Noraini Binti Zulkifli

 

Abstract

Rohingnya women and girls who were systematically targeted based on their ethnic nature and territory, particularly during the two main attack phases from October 2012 to August 2017, during operation of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Myanmar's government has failed massively in protecting them against extreme, widespread violence. The study examined the form of violence against Rohingnya women and girls based on primary and secondary data from 2012 to 2019. The primary data were collected from structured interviews involving informants consist of Rohingnya refugee and specialized in Rohingnya crisis. Secondary data from books, theses, journal papers and online data were collected. This study has three objectives, namely 1) to identify the form of violence; 2) to classify the main perpetrators, and 3) to analyse the Implementation of Responsibility to Protect (RtoP). The findings revealed 1) Rohingnya women and girl’s experienced flagrant, horrific sexual violence and a widespread rape case that showed systemic structure and endorsement; 2) the main perpetrators are Myanmar armed forces, police, Buddhists and other ethnic groups, and 3) the second and third pillars still working even Myanmar failed to protect Rohingya women under pillar one.

 

TRAINING MANAGEMENT IN THE MALAYSIAN ARMED FORCES RELIGIOUS CORPS PERSONNEL

Burhanuddin Jalal, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Rashid Nordin, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw

 

Abstract

Islamic propagation in the Malaysian Army has started since its inception in 1933 and was strengthened with the establishment of the Malaysian Armed Forces Religious Corps (KAGAT) in 1985. The Islamic Propagation efforts implemented by KAGAT in the military institutions have been successful in establishing Islamic appreciation amongst military personnel; strengthening their spiritual and mental aspect so that they have the strong combat power to defend their nation. This paper discussed on the approach used to develop the quality of the Islamic military missionaries or the personnel of the Malaysian Armed Forces Religious Corps or KAGAT). Library research, survey method using questionnaire, interview and observation have been used to gain data related to the preparation and training for the KAGAT personnel. The questionnaire was used as the field study instrument to study the Armed Forces personnel’s perception of the Armed Forces Religious Corps (KAGAT) members. A total of 383 respondents from the Malaysian Armed Forces were used as research samples. Random sampling technique was used and the overall survey result was analysed using the SPSS software where both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to the data collected. Research results showed that the Malaysian Armed Forces personnel perception towards KAGAT members is generally good (high) and this proved that the KAGAT effort to nurture Islamic appreciation amongst Malaysian Armed Forces personnel is achieved.

 

THE ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POWER AND ITS RELEVANCE TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Ananthan.S, Mohd Nizam Jaffar, Azelan Abu Bakar, Azman Norazman Selamat, Mohd Azmurin Mat Khalid, Saiful Bahari Zainol, Hisyam Harun, Koey Tang Chai

 

Abstract

National security is of paramount interests to small states. Security cannot be solely dependent on military might alone. It requires the actions at various fronts including diplomatic, intelligence and economic, and delivered in a concerted effort by a whole-of government and whole-of nation approach. Malaysia is well blessed by the basic instruments of power i.e. diplomacy, informational, military and economic elements (DIME). However, for efficient employment of all these instruments of power, a coherent set of National Security Policy documents must be formulated and implemented with strong leadership at all levels to achieve an effective outcome for National Security. This paper endeavours to investigate how small nations can use their instruments of national power to support their national security objectives. The Malaysian context is used as an example to validate the employment of the various elements of national power to protect and secure the nation whilst confronting the various non-traditional security threats.

 

KRISIS PERLEMBAGAAN PERAK 2009 DAN KESAN TERHADAP PERPADUAN NASIONAL

THE PERAK CONSTITUTION CRISIS 2009 AND ITS IMPACT ON NATIONAL UNITY

Noor Hishmuddian Rahim, Mohammed Feizol Anuar Hj Ayub, Mohd Radzi Hj Hamid, Ahmad Saifuddin Talha, Farizal Myeor, Mohd Najib Saad, Mohd Zaki Abu, Hamidi Hashim

 

Abstrak 

Kertas ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti punca krisis Perlembagaan Perak. Selain itu, kertas ini untuk mengkaji kesahihan penglibatan Raja Berpelembagaan dan implikasinya terhadap penubuhan kerajaan Negeri Perak. Kertas ini juga menganalisa peranan badan kehakiman dalam menyelesaikan isu kepimpinan politik di Perak. Kertas ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan dua kaedah penyelidikan iaitu pemeriksaan terhadap politik-sejarah dan analisis kandungan pada bahan sekunder. Kaedah tersebut digunakan untuk memahami keadaan dan menentukan prosedur dengan berkesan untuk menjawab isu-isu tersebut. Kertas ini menunjukkan bahawa krisis itu adalah disebabkan oleh tindakan tiga wakil rakyat yang telah melompat parti. Akibatnya, ia membawa kepada keruntuhan kerajaan yang dipilih oleh rakyat dan perpecahan perpaduan di kalangan rakyat. Kajian ini juga mendapati bahawa Sultan Perak telah bertindak di luar kuasa yang dibenarkan oleh Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Perak.Tambahan pula badan kehakiman memainkan peranan penting dalam menentukan kelayakan Menteri Besar. Kes ini telah memberi kesan kepada perpaduan nasional pada peringkat negeri mahupun pada peringkat Persekutuan.

 

Abstract

This paper aims to identify the root causes of the Perak Constitution crisis. In addition, this paper is to examine the legitimacy of the involvement of the Constitutional King and its implications for the establishment of the Perak State government. This paper also analyzes the role of the judiciary in resolving political leadership issues in Perak. This paper uses a qualitative approach with two research methods namely examination of political-history and content analysis on secondary materials. The method is used to understand the situation and determine the procedure effectively to answer those issues. This paper shows that the crisis is due to the actions of three elected representatives who have jumped the party. As a result, it led to the collapse of the government elected by the people and the division of unity among the people. This study also found that the Sultan of Perak has acted outside the powers allowed by the Perak State Constitution. In addition, the judiciary plays an important role in determining the qualifications of the Menteri Besar. This case has affected national unity at the state level as well as at the Federal level.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS ON NATIONAL’S SECURITY

Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Ariffin Ismail, Arman Rumaizi Ahmad, Mohd Zambri Mohamad Raba, Chan Peng Cheong, Mohd Razali Alias, Shahriman Mahmud, Hasnol Hisham Abu Hassan

 

Abstract

Socioeconomic development incorporates sustained increase in the economic growth per capita for a country. For instance, economic security is a major element of national security based on the instruments of Diplomacy, Information, Military, and Economic (DIME). As such, this study overview the impacts of socioeconomic issues on Malaysia’s stability and security that contribute to the national power. Hence, the selected macroeconomic determinants, namely inflation, employment rate, and military expenditure, were assessed. The research methodology employed in this study had been based on the comparative approach. The study outcomes revealed strong relationships of the selected macroeconomic determinants with both the stability and security of Malaysia. Investment in defence spending is prescribed to promote the economic growth in Malaysia. This study concludes that socioeconomic development plays an integral role in contributing to the security and the stability of Malaysia. Further discussion, analyses, conclusion, and measures are elaborated.

 

AIRPOWER AND MALAYSIA’S MARITIME ZONES: REALITY AND RHETORIC

Wong Chooi Ye

 

Abstract

Airpower has been the “rising star” since the first World War due to military modernisation and competition in the aviation domain. Malaysia’s ratification of 1982 United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Indo-Pacific mise en scene drive Malaysia to multiple maritime security concerns. Nevertheless, could Malaysia, being a maritime nation, be able to address these maritime-related security issues with airpower? This paper serves four purposes, including define airpower, analyse airpower in the Malaysian perspectives, address airpower in Malaysia’s security complexity, and determining the maritime-related security concerns posed to the nation. This qualitative research explains the phenomena on Malaysia’s application of airpower in securing the broad spectrum maritime borders. Major primary data is obtained from official documentation, in-depth interviews and participation observation. The role of the researcher is also crucial as a key instrument for the study. The study has found out that no doubt Malaysia is facing maritime security issues, particularly non-conventional in nature. In this pursuit, airpower is used as the potentially effective approach for policing Malaysia’s maritime zones and sovereignty. The study suggests enhance application of airpower in Malaysia’s defence and security cooperation with natural partners, such as Australia.

 

THE EVOLUTION OF COMBAT MOTIVATION IN THE MILITARY

Endrynixon. A., Ananthan. S

 

Abstract

Motivation has always been a critical element in any military force in managing soldiers in military missions. The article reviews the evolution that has taken place in motivation factors in managing soldiers over the hostile decades of war and conflicts. Relevant literatures were reviewed to examine motivational factors among soldiers during World War I, World War II and other conflicts in the 20th century. The analysis highlights that although primary cohesion plays an important role, secondary group cohesion has become an additional motivating factor during combat as the nature of conflict progressed from a single combat force to a combined force involving other combat support elements or multinational forces for military missions. The study concludes that the influencing factors of motivation in the military can be categorized into three perspectives. First; individual that surrounds on what is conscientiously right and self satisfaction. Second; social that refers to social responsibility to the country, nation, organisation and unit and finally; organisational which relates to those that provide guidelines and the necessary support to achieve the organisational goal. The review provides an overview of the evolution in motivational factors in a combat environment and suggest for further exploration in non-combat situations.

 

 

 

 

 

ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AMONG CHILDREN

Jorrye Jakiwa, Siti Azilah Atan, Mohd Syrinaz Azli

 

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor development among children based on ethnic differences. A total of 49 subjects aged between 8 to 9 years old were volunteered involve in this study (age, 8.55 ± .50 years old). There are two Malaysian ethnic involved in this study namely Malay (n = 28) and Indian (n = 21). All of the subjects are among students in one of the primary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The subjects’ level of gross motor development was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development version 2 (TGMD-2). The instrument was used to examine two important aspects of gross motor that are locomotor and object manipulation.  The locomotor component skills consist of running, galloping, hopping, leaping, jumping and sliding. While the object manipulation component consists of striking, dribbling, catching, kicking, throwing and rolling. The findings showed that there were no differences observed on level of gross motor development between Malay and Indian in locomotor [t (46) = .524, p (.60)> .05] and object manipulation [t (44.09) = -1.45, p (.19)> .05]. The Gross Motor Quotient (GMQ) score showed by Malay (min = 87.46) and Indian (min = 81.00) are below average of level of gross motor development. In conclusion, the gross motor performance among children is lower compared to their actual age. While ethnic factors are not strong indicator to determine children’s gross motor development in Malaysia. 

 

STUDENTS’ ACTIVE ROLES IN ARABIC LANGUAGE DEBATE ACTIVITIES IN NDUM

Najjah Salwa Abd Razak, Masdini Harina Ab Manan, Nor Azliana Akmal Binti Jamaludin, NurHidayati Mohd Rafy, Mhd Faizal Mhd Ramli

 

Abstract

Students’ interest in learning Arabic as a foreign language is an important aspect that has to be addressed by language instructors. By addressing this affective factor, they will be able to cater the needs of the students, particularly in selecting relevant activities that suit the students’ abilities and at the same time comply with the syllabus. This study explores the students' interest in learning Arabic using debates. It also intends to investigate the challenges faced and efforts made by students in the process of learning Arabic through debates. This is a single case study involving ten participants consisting of National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM) students from diverse backgrounds. The participants were interviewed, with the sessions recorded and saved in MP3 audio format. The interviews were then transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The findings show that on the whole, the students have good interest in learning Arabic language through roleplay activities, but there are various challenges experienced by the students in the learning process. For example, the insufficiency of the vocabulary to express their ideas and the need to always translate it first. They also get demoralised when interacting with more fluent and proficient speakers. Despite these challenges, they demonstrated a persistent and satisfied effort as they feel like they are being challenged to be better while achieving the objective of the activity. This study provides some pedagogical recommendations in terms of prepping students with communicative function activities such as debates with several guidelines, particularly for minimising the constraints of students with basic Arabic language experience.

 

Abstrak

Minat pelajar untuk mempelajari bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa asing adalah aspek penting yang perlu diambil berat oleh pengajar bahasa. Melalui faktor afektif ini, mereka dapat memenuhi keperluan para pelajar, terutamanya dalam memilih aktiviti yang relevan dengan kemampuan pelajar dan pada masa yang sama selaras dengan sukatan pelajaran. Kajian ini meneroka minat pelajar mempelajari bahasa Arab menerusi aktiviti debat. Selain itu, cabaran yang dihadapi dan usaha yang dilakukan pelajar dalam proses pembelajaran tersebut turut dikaji. Kajian kes ini melibatkan sepuluh peserta dalam kalangan pelajar Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) dari pelbagai latar belakang. Para peserta telah ditemu bual dan maklum balas mereka direkodkan menggunakan perakam dan disimpan dalam bentuk audio MP3. Rakaman tersebut kemudiannya ditranskripskikan secara verbatim dan dianalisis secara tematik. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa pelajar keseluruhan mempunyai minat yang tinggi dalam mempelajari Bahasa Arab melalui aktiviti debat yang menonjolkan peranan aktif pelajar. Namun, terdapat pelbagai cabaran yang dialami oleh pelajar dalam proses pembelajaran; contohnya kekurangan perbendaharaan kata untuk menyatakan idea mereka dan keperluan untuk sentiasa menterjemahkan ayat terlebih dahulu. Walaupun terdapat cabaran, mereka telah menunjukkan usaha yang berterusan dan memuaskan kerana mereka berasa tercabar untuk menjadi lebih baik sekaligus mencapai objektif aktiviti tersebut. Kajian ini memberi implikasi terhadap pedagogi pengajaran, iaitu penyelidik mencadangkan pendekatan aktiviti debat sesuai untuk pembelajaran bahasa Arab dengan merujuk kepada beberapa garis panduan, khususnya untuk meminimumkan kekangan pelajar yang hanya mempunyai pengalaman bahasa Arab asas.

 

PENGARUH KETERIKATAN KERJA SEBAGAI PERANTARA TERHADAP HUBUNGAN ANTARA KECERDASAN SPIRITUAL DAN KOMITMEN AFEKTIF: PERBANDINGAN ANTARA PERSPEKTIF BARAT DAN ISLAM

Rogis Baker, Hasimi Sallehudin, Ahmad Azan Ridzuan, Mohd Hamran Mohamad, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi

 

Abstrak

Matlamat kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji hubungan secara langsung antara kecerdasan spiritual dengan keterikatan kerja dan hubungan keterikatan kerja dengan komitmen afektif dalam perspektif Islam dan Barat. Kajian ini juga bertujuan mengkaji peranan keterikatan kerja sebagai perantara terhadap hubungan antara kecerdasan spiritual dengan komitmen afektif. Kajian melibatkan seramai 372 pegawai polis di lima negeri iaitu Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, Sarawak dan Sabah. Kaedah penyelidikan yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah melibatkan pengedaran soal selidik kepada responden. Pengujian hipotesis dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis PLS-SEM. Hasil analisis mendapati: (1) tiga dimensi kecerdasan spiritual iaitu kemampuan berfikir secara kritis (CET), kemampuan mencipta makna (PMP) dan kesedaran transcendental (TA) mempunyai hubungan signifikan positif dengan keterikatan kerja; (2) satu dimensi kecerdasan spiritual iaitu kesedaran perkembangan aspek spiritual (CSE) tidak mempunyai hubungan signifikan dengan keterikatan kerja; (3) keterikatan kerja mempunyai hubungan signifikan positif dengan komitmen afektif; (4) keterikatan kerja mempunyai kesan perantara terhadap hubungan antara ketiga-tiga dimensi kecerdasan spiritual (CET, PMP dan TA) dengan komitmen afektif; (5) keterikatan kerja tidak mempunyai kesan perantara terhadap hubungan antara dimensi kecerdasan spiritual iaitu CSE dengan komitmen afektif. Hasil kajian ini telah membuktikan bahawa keterikatan kerja dapat berperanan sebagai perantara antara hubungan sebahagian besar dimensi kecerdasan spiritual dengan komitmen afektif. Penemuan ini juga menandakan bahawa kepentingan elemen kecerdasan spiritual dalam mempengaruhi kesetiaan dan komitmen pegawai polis. 

 

PENGURUSAN DAKWAH ORGANISASI: KOMPETENSI PENDAKWAH KOR AGAMA ANGKATAN TENTERA MALAYSIA 

Burhanuddin Jalal, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Suraya Saudi

 

Abstrak

Pelaksanaan Dakwah Islamiah dalam Angkatan Tentera Malaysia telah bermula sejak penubuhannya pada tahun 1933 lagi dan terus diperkasakan dengan penubuhan Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera Malaysia (KAGAT) pada tahun 1985. Usaha-usaha dakwah Islamiah yang dilaksanakan oleh KAGAT dalam  institusi ketenteraan  telah membina penghayatan Islam dalam kalangan anggotanya membentuk kekuatan anggota dari aspek spritual dan mental agar mempunyai daya tempur yang kuat bagi mempertahankan agama, bangsa dan negara. Kepentingan anggota atau warga kerja yang mempunyai kompetensi atau cemerlang bagi melonjak organisasi ke arah yang lebih baik amat penting. Kompetensi merujuk pengetahuan dan kemahiran yang diperlukan  dalam melaksanakan tugasan atau kerja tertentu.Kajian bertujuan untuk melihat tahap kompetensi pendakwah KAGAT terhadap tugas yang dilaksnakan. Kajian perpustakaan, kaedah soal selidik, temu bual dan pemerhatian telah digunakan bagi memperoleh data berkaitan dengan penyediaan dan latihan terhadap anggota  Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera Malaysia. Kajian soal selidik telah dijadikan instrumen kajian lapangan untuk melihat persepsi anggota Angkatan tentera terhadap anggota KAGAT. Kajian telah dilakukan terhadap 383 orang responden anggota ATM yang telah dijadikan sampel kajian. Teknik pengambilan sampel secara rambang telah digunakan dan keseluruhan hasil kajian telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan perisian SPSS  secara deskriptif dan inferensi. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan  bahawa persepsi anggota ATM terhadap anggota KAGAT pada umumnya baik serta tinggi dan ini membuktikan bahawa usaha-usaha Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera Malaysia (KAGAT) untuk membina penghayatan Islam dalam kalangan anggota Angkatan Tentera Malaysia adalah tercapai dan kajian menunjukkan pendakwah KAGAT mempunyai kompetensi yang tinggi dalam pelaksanaan tugas.

 

Abstract

The implementation of Islamic Da'wah in the Malaysian Armed Forces has started since its inception in 1933 and continues to be strengthened with the establishment of the Malaysian Armed Forces Religious Corps (KAGAT) in 1985. Islamic da'wah efforts implemented by KAGAT in military institutions have built an appreciation of Islam among its members form the strength of members in terms of spiritual and mental in order to have a strong combat power to defend religion, nation and country. The importance of members or employees who have the competence or excellence to propel the organization for the better is very important. Competence refers to the knowledge and skills required in performing a particular task or work. The study aims to see the level of competence of KAGAT preachers on the task performed. Library studies, questionnaires, interviews and observations were used to obtain data related to the preparation and training of members of the Religious Corps of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Questionnaire study has been used as a field research instrument to see the perception of members of the Armed Forces towards KAGAT members. A study was conducted on 383 ATM members who were sampled for the study. Random sampling techniques were used and the overall results of the study were analyzed using SPSS software descriptively and inference. The findings show that the perception of ATM members towards KAGAT members is generally good and high and this proves that the efforts of the Religious Corps of the Malaysian Armed Forces (KAGAT) to build an appreciation of Islam among members of the Malaysian Armed Forces are achieved and studies show that KAGAT preachers have competencies high in the execution of tasks.

 

ISRAEL’S NON-MILITARY STRATEGY IN THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT: ARCHAEOLOGY AS ISRAEL’S NATIONAL INSTRUMENT IN JERUSALEM/BAITUL MAQDIS (1948-2018)

Nor Aishah Hanifa

 

Abstract

This article analyses how archaeology has been an instrument for Israel to claim sovereignty over Jerusalem. Since 1967 archaeology has been a national instrument for Israel to achieve legitimacy over the Land of Palestine. In Israel, archaeology is treated as a national and patriotic project. Nationalistic archaeologists have been playing an important role to assist Israel to achieve its national interest. Archaeological excavations have been gradually establishing the Jewish identity in this holy land vis-à-vis Palestinian/Arabic/Islamic identity. “Judaizing policy”, taking place vigorously in Jerusalem especially in the Holy Basin with the help of settler organizations. Palestinians rise against Israeli ambition through counter archaeological activities to safeguard their historical heritages. Israelis perceive Palestinians’ activities as detrimental to Israel’s survival as a Jewish state in the holy land. This phenomena shapes the “Clash of Civilizations” in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. One of the area affected by such clash is the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif (TMH) and the Holy Basin. Israel wages non-military battle since 1967 to claim sovereignty over whole Palestine. Using archaeology as an instrument in the territorial policy is a smart strategy. Israel’s smart strategy of utilizing archaeology is suitable in the historical sites where the use of force can jeopardize Israel’s national interest.

 

 

 

 

 

THE CHALLENGES MANAGING MALAYSIAN BORDER

Noor Azmi Mohd Zainol, Sofian Kamaruddin, Ahmad Azan Ridzuan, Anwar Zamani Jusop 

 

Abstract

This article aims to examine the challenges encountered by Malaysia enforcement border agencies to protect the sovereignty of Malaysia and its prospects of integration among various agencies at the border. With a wide boundary, the Malaysian security is porous to various threats which not only mean a traditional military threat but also include a multiple threat. Current threats have been broadening to include non-traditional threats such as terrorism and other transnational criminal i.e. illegal immigrants, human trafficking and smuggling of prohibited goods. In order to control such threats, there are several government agencies and legal enforcement which are responsible to protect Malaysian sovereignty such as The Royal Malaysian Police, Royal Malaysian Customs Department, Malaysian Department of Immigration, and Malaysian Border Control Agency and Malaysian Armed Forces as well.  These agencies are responsible to manage the Malaysian border at various legal checkpoints such as air, sea and land checkpoints. The Malaysian Armed Forces on the other hand, has been responsible to manage illegal route along the Malaysian border especially in the jungle. All the challenges will discuss further in this article.   

 

POLICE SPECIAL BRANCH STRATEGY AND TACTICS IN ELIMINATING THE SECOND COMMUNIST EMERGENCY IN MALAYSIA 1968-1989: AN ANALYSIS

Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Noraini Zulkafli, Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman

 

Abstract

Malaysia once had faced the insurgency periods which were started by Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) since 1948. However, after they were defeated by the Malayan Security Forces (MSF) in 1960, CPM had once again took the chance to revive their armed struggle by launching a full-scale attack. This marked the beginning of the Second Malaysia Emergency, which lasted for almost 21 years. This research was based on the roles and functions of the Police Special Branch in defeating the communist insurgency. The main primary data of this research was based on open interview while the secondary data were focusing on archival research and academic writings. The findings of this research shown the Police Special Branch have succeeded in eliminating the CPM armed struggled that have been ongoing for 21 years.

 

MALAYSIAN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN CONGO AND SOMALIA: AN OVERVIEW AND CHALLENGES

Najjah Salwa Abd Razak, Ramli Nik, Mhd Faizal Mhd Ramli, Haslinda Abdullah

 

Abstract

Malaysia is one of the countries deployed as peacekeepers in Congo and Somalia. The credibility of Malaysian peacekeepers is undeniable as Malaysia keeps gaining recognition at the international level. However, the successes of Malaysian peacekeepers still need to be explored, particularly the previous deployments as well as the current ones. Thus, this paper focuses on the capability of Malaysian peacekeepers assigned in Congo and Somalia. The researchers explore the challenges and efforts of Malaysian peacekeepers towards accomplishing their tasks. This is a multiple case study comprising a series of interviews and library research for data triangulation and thematic analysis. The findings show that the Malaysian peacekeepers deployed in Congo and Somalia apply diverse ways in order to carry out their tasks effectively with some early exposure from their training in Malaysia. There are numerous differences on how they adapt with their tasks from different countries of deployments. The guidelines pertaining to this study are presented as a dimension of prior deployment that is still relevant to the present deployments. 

 

HUBUNGAN KECERDASAN EMOSI DAN MOTIVASI DALAM KALANGAN ANGGOTA 3 KOR ARMOR DIRAJA (KAD)

Dora Nurlaily Azman, Noraini Zulkifli

 

Abstrak

Rejimen 3 Kor Armor DiRaja (KAD) merupakan unit berperisai yang penting dalam Tentera Darat Malaysia. Misi 3 KAD adalah “Pasukan Tempur Yang Kredibel Dalam Operasi Ofensif dan Defensif. Dalam melaksanakan tugas sebagai anggota tentera, mereka menghadapi pelbagai risiko di mana tahap kecergasan dan motivasi mereka diuji. Kajian ini mempunyai tiga objektif iaitu 1) Mengenalpasti tahap kecerdasan emosi dan tahap motivasi di kalangan anggota 3 KAD; 2) Menentukan hubungan dimensi kecerdasan emosi dengan motivasi di kalangan anggota 3 KAD; 3) Mengenalpasti perbezaan tahap motivasi berdasarkan demografi (pangkat, status perkahwinan dan tempoh perkhidmatan) di kalangan anggota 3 KAD. Kajian ini menggunakan metod kuantitatif. Data primer dikumpulkan melalui kaedah kaji selidik  terhadap anggota Rejimen 3 KAD. Data sekunder pula dikumpul daripada kajian perpustakaan berdasarkan bahan ilmiah, tesis, artikel jurnal, atau data atas talian. Hasil analisis menunjukkan tahap kecerdasan emosi anggota berada di tahap tinggi manakala motivasi mereka berada di tahap sederhana. . Dapatan  kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa kecerdasan emosi berdasarkan dimensi intrapersonal tidak mempunyai hubungan dengan motivasi, namun berlaku sebaliknya bagi dimensi interpersonal dalam kalangan anggota 3 KAD. Selain itu, hanya satu faktor demografi yang mempunyai perbezaan tahap motivasi secara signifikan iaitu berdasarkan pangkat. Namun kajian mendapati tidak terdapat perbezaan tahap motivasi berdasarkan status perkahwinan dan tempoh perkhidmatan.

 

QUWWAH DALAM AL-QURAN MENURUT TAFSIRAN KLASIK DAN MODEN

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohd Yasid

 

Abstrak

Quwwah dalam teks Al-Quran yang disalah ertikan sebagai keganasan akibat daripada kurangnya pemahaman ke atas umat Islam untuk melakukan persediaan bagi tujuan pertahanan. Jesteru kajian ini melihat penafsiran quwwah menurut pentafsir klasik dan moden. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kualitatif, kajian ini mendapati bahawa ketiadaan sebarang tafsiran oleh para pentafsir klasik dan moden, yang menyeru "penyalahgunaan" quwwah dengan cara yang membahayakan orang lain.

 

Abstract

Quwwah in the Qur'anic text is misinterpreted as violence due to lack of understanding of Muslims to prepare for defense purposes. This study looks at the interpretation of quwwah according to classic and modern interpreters. Using qualitative methods, the study found that the absence of any interpretation by classical and modern interpreters, called for "abuse" of quwwah in a way that is harmful to others. 

 

 

 

 

 

AWAITING REVISED ARTICLE

 

Hubungan Kecerdasan Emosi Dengan Tekanan Kerja Dan Kepuasan Kerja Dalam Kalangan Anggota Tentera Darat Malaysia 

 

Peningkatan Sosial Ekonomi  Melalui Instrumen Wakaf: Kajian di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam di Malaysia

 

The Future Growth for Malaysian Manufacturing Industry An Application Of  Input – Output Chain Analysis

 

Peranan Tok Ku Paloh Dalam Menyatukan Pejuang Pahang Dalam Peristiwa Pemberontakan Pahang 1891-1895

  

Character Education of TNI in The Frame of Modernization

 

Royal Malaysian Navy’s Operational Issues, Limitation and Challenges in Safeguarding Malaysia’s Maritime Domain and Resources 

 

 

IN REVIEW

 

The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Leadership Style Towards Job Performance in Malaysian Army

 

Applying Security and Development (KESBAN) Model in Transcending Eastern Sabah Security Predicament

 

Perspektif Pelajar terhadap Cadangan Penambahbaikan Pelaksanaan Latihan Industri bagi Pihak Universiti

 

Abroad versus Local The PhD Experience among PhD Holders in a University in Malaysia Using Postgraduate Research Experience Questionnaire (PREQ)

 

Task and Contextual Job Performance among Middle Managers in the Malaysian Army

 

Research of the Relationship between Welfare and Morale of Infantry Personnel with Disaster Response Management (PSS 2018)

 

The Relationship Between Employee Benefits, Employee Empowerment and Workplace Condition Towards Employee Satisfaction in the Retail Industry

 

Strategy Logistics and Supply Chain Management Minicont as the World Next Logistics Solution

 

“One Belt, One Road Initiative”: Effect on Malaysia’s Economy and Regional Policy

 

Analysis of The Influence of Security Stability and Strategic Industrial Growth on Macroeconomics

 

Assessing the Mediating Effect of Training Motivation between Training Design and Job Performance

 

Effect of steady state exercise relative to rest on gastrointestinal damage:  exploration of faecal calprotectin utility in short term exercise

 

Foreign Body on Right Lateral Border of Tongue That Mimicking Varix: A Case Report

 

Measuring Military Combat Readiness In The Malaysian Army

 

Bail and the Principle of Generalibus Specialia Derogant in the Malaysian Military Justice System  

 

 

AWAITING STATUS CONFIRMATION

 

Pengaruh Elemen Ketara terhadap Kualiti Perkhidmatan Masjid Muhammad Al-Fateh UPNM

 

Tahap Kepuasan pelanggan Terhadap Kualiti Perkhidmatan Masjid Muhammad Al-Fateh UPNM

Dimensi Pengurusan Keselamatan dan Piawaian Pengurus Keselamatan Acara yang Efektif

Dimensi-dimensi Keamanan Negara dan Perpaduan Kaum di Malaysia

Strategi Taktikal: Strategi Jepun Menawan Kelantan dan Strategi British Mempertahankan Kelantan 

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG MIDDLE MANAGERS IN THE MALAYSIAN ARMY

Inderjit Singh, Kwong Fook Wen, Haslind Abdullah 

 

Abstrak

Affective, normative and continuance commitment are variables that indicate the organizational commitment of an organization. The purpose of this research is to identify the organizational commitment of middle managers of Senior Non-Commissioned Officers (SNCOs) in the Malaysian Army. The research was based on post-positivist philosophy.  Quantitative approach and non-experimental survey was used for the research.  The data consisting of 458 respondents were collected from soldiers of rank of corporal and below from the combat corps of the Malaysian Army in determining the organizational commitment of SNCOs. The statistical treatment of the data obtained was done by using PLS-SEM in order to determine the plausibility of the data obtained with the hypothesized model of job performance.  This research has identified that organizational commitment of the SNCOs consists of affective, normative and continuance commitment. This research reveals that that both affective and normative commitment are of similar importance for establishing organizational commitment of middle managers in the combat element of the Malaysian Army but normative organizational commitment is more significant compared to affective commitment whereby continuance commitment is not an indicator of organizational commitment in the Malaysian Army.

   

KEPIMPINAN ULAMA DALAM PERISTIWA PEMBERONTAKAN PAHANG (1891-1895):  PERANAN TUAN HAJI UTHMAN BIN SENIK

ISLAMIC SCHOLAR LEADERSHIP IN THE PAHANG UPRISING INCIDENT: THE ROLE OF TUAN HAJI UTHMAN BIN SENIK

Amnah Saayah Ismail, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, Khairunnisa Mardzuki, Wong Wai Loong, Haliza Mohd Zahari, Burhanuddin Jalal, Wan Kamal Mujani

 

Abstrak

Peristiwa pemberontakan Pahang yang berlaku pada penghujung abad ke-19 Masihi menyaksikan wujudnya kepimpinan ulama dalam menyemarakkan semangat jihad dalam jiwa para pejuang. Antara ulama yang hadir dalam peristiwa tersebut ialah Haji Uthman bin Senik. Justeru artikel ini akan membincangkan peranan Haji Uthman bin Senik dalam memimpin para pejuang dalam peristiwa pemberontakan Pahang. Metodologi penulisan ini ialah analisis kandungan dan kajian kepustakaan. Menerusi penulisan ini didapati bahawa terdapat pelbagai peranan hasil kepimpinan Haji Uthman bin Senik iaitu menerusi bidang pengajaran dan penulisan serta penglibatan secara langsung di medan perang. Peranan-peranan ini dikenalpasti berjaya menyatupadukan para pejuang dalam meluahkan semangat anti penjajahan terhadap penjajahan British di negeri Pahang.

 

Abstract

The Pahang uprising incident that took place at the end of the 19th century AD witnessed the emergence of the leadership of Islamic scholars who were instrumental in stirring the spirit of jihad amongst independence fighters. Among the Islamic scholars who participated in the uprising was Haji Uthman bin Senik. Hence this article will discuss the role of Haji Uthman bin Senik in leading independence fighters during the Pahang uprising. This paper is based on the methodologies of content analysis and literature study. This paper found that Haji Uthman bin Senik performed various roles of leadership during the uprising i.e. in the fields of teaching and writing and direct combative engagements on the battlefields. His leadership roles were identified as critical factors that successfully unified the independence fighters in the expression of the anti-colonial spirit against British occupation in the state of Pahang.

 

 

THE HYDRATION STATUS OF MALAYSIA’S YOUNG MALE SOCCER PLAYERS DURING COMPETITIVE SEASON

Siti Azilah Atan, Mohammad Fazrul Jafar, Jorrye Jakiwa, Mohd Syrinaz Azli, Mohar Kassim

 

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the preexercise hydration status and to assess body mass (BM) loss (kg) of young male soccer player’s (age 15.6 ± 0.4) training in a hot and humid environment. Methods: Twenty male soccer players (n = 20, 55.3 ± 8.4 kg) from Sekolah Sukan Bukit Jalil (SSBJ), Malaysia had volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements of hydration status were taken on two occasions during competitive season. Urine sample was collected and handheld refractometer was used to assess the urine specific gravity (USG). Body weight was monitored before and after training session. The results showed that the participants were within the normal range of hydration status (1.016 ± 0.01). No significant difference was observed between measurements in USG (1.016 ± 0.01 v 1.017 ± 0.01, p >0.05) and BM loss (kg) (0.20 ± 0.5 vs. 0.24 ± 0.3, p >0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study indicates that the participants have an effective hydration strategy during the training session in competitive season. 

 

PRODUCING BETTER CADETS: CONSIDERING THE ROLE OF LIMINALITY DURING THE INITIATION PHASE

Ahmad Thamrini Fadzlin Syed Mohamed

 

Abstract

Drawing from Meyer and Land (2005) work on Threshold Concepts, this paper describes the role of liminal period in enabling the transition one must partake to become a military officer. To date, not much attention has been given on the process of transformation and challenges faced by cadets in becoming an officer. With focus given on the initiation phase, the study argues that such period is crucial and troublesome as cadet would have to abandon their self-identity to acquire the officers’ mantle. Through in-depth interviews conducted at two prominent European military institutions with policy makers, military trainers, officers and cadets, the paper illustrates how the initiation phase is an important rites-to-passage that will eliminate those deemed unfit to become an officer while embedding the required distinctiveness of being a military officer.  The paper further argues that even though the military education system is highly mechanised, some of the process of imbedding the officers’ identity happens through informal exchanges with superiors, peers and subordinates. Establishing the importance of the phase, findings included in this paper may contribute in understanding why some cadets traverse successfully through the elimination process, while others get themselves stuck on the rites of passage1 to become an officer.

 

A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ON THE DOWNFALL OF MALACCA IN 1511; INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS

Wan Hashim Wan Teh 

 

Abstract

The year 1511 is a watershed in the history of the Malay world in general and Malacca empire in particular. It marks the downfall of a great Malay empire ever existed and also the beginning of Western imperialism in this part of the world. It shall be the aim of this paper to analyse the causes of its downfall by taking into consideration both the internal and external factors. In order to have a balanced perspective of the happening, we shall examine both local or indigenous sources, especially the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) as well as foreign sources in particular documents and published materials from the Portuguese which have been translated into English. Areas to be covered for analysis shall be on the internal situation of the Malay kingdom of Malacca in the first decade of the 16th century. In this regard, we shall utilize the concept of assabiyah which has been proposed by Ibn Khaldun in his magnum opus the Muqaddimmah, which suggests assabiyah or loosely translated as ‘integration’ or esprit d’corp as one of the prerequisites for a strong foundation of an empire or a state. In addition, we shall also examine other aspects especially the weakness of Malacca’s armed forces and the defence strategy or the lack of it and including the weapons used as compared with that of the invading force, the Portuguese. Likewise, we shall examine what factors that led to an easy victory of the Portuguese even though they were faced with the Malay fighters who were much superior in numbers. In the final analysis, we shall propose the importance of a kingdom or nation to attain or achieve unity among its population of various races, upholding the asabiyah or esprit de corps and especially having both a professional standing army and a sound defence strategy for it to survive in the long term.

 

 

 

 

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