BILATERAL RELATIONS OF PHILLIPINES AND MALAYSIA: THE ERA OF AND AFTER PRESIDENT MARCOS
Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, Mohamad Fadzly Mohd Yasin, S. Inderjit, Khairunnisa Mardzuki, Haliza Mohd Zahari, Wong Wai Loong, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Burhanuddin Abd Jalal
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the foreign policy of the Philippines to improve their economic position after being in the country's internal political turmoil. The exploring on the bilateral relations between the Philippines and Malaysia since the leadership of President Carlos Garcia until President Rodrigo Duterte. At the international level, the termination of US military bases from the country in 1992 invites major challenge to the Philippines in the international arena, that changes the fate of the political elite position among Filipinos. The Philippines claim to Sabah as part of its territory, while Indonesia declares the region of Borneo as its territory through the desire of Sukarno to establish Indonesia Raya. The claim of Sabah by the Philippines for over thirty years. The conflict in the southern Philippines over the MILF and MNL as well as the latest issue relating to the economic downturn in 1997 until 1998 generates a relationship that cannot be avoided between the Philippines and Malaysia. The support of the two countries towards the United Nations and the positive support towards the role of ASEAN's makes bilateral relations between Malaysia and the Philippines. The contributions on the harmonious relationship between the Philippines and Malaysia is the result of the spirit of Asian countries formed through policies of both countries to support ASEAN.
THE FORMATION OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS BASED ON THE DETERMINANTS OF PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, SPIRITUAL AND INTELLECTUAL
Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed, Mohd Hamran Mohamad, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Rogis Baker, Rosmah Mohamed, Nur Surayya binti Mohd Saudi
Leadership is a key pillar of the successful 21st century organizations and it is very crucial to ensure that its governance is always of the highest standard and remain relevant. Leadership without integrity is a risk to an organization and will disrupts the organization’s efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, the process of developing a good leader is vital for university students who will be future leaders with a holistic and balanced spiritual and physical aspect of their life. This study was conducted to analyze the four concepts of P.E.S.I. namely Physical, Emotional, Spiritual and Intellectual that influence the preservation of leadership among students in a Malaysian institution of higher learning. The quantitative method was used in this study where self-administered questionnaires were employed as a research instrument. The sample (n=342) was collected from students of a public university in Malaysia. The results found that there were significant relationships between the four concepts of P.E.S.I. and the formation of charismatic leadership among students of a public university in Malaysia. This study is expected to be an important source of reference for public universities in Malaysia to develop exemplary leaders.
NATURAL DISASTER: ITS IMPLICATION TO HUMAN SECURITY
Ng Chin Sai, Rogis Baker, Noor Azmi Mohd Zainol, Haliza Mohd Zahari, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Zailin Zainal Ariffin
This study is intended to provide an overview of a natural disaster that significantly affects human security, especially in Malaysia. Furthermore, it enhances the understanding of natural disaster determinant factors and improves the knowledge about the risk, vulnerability, and consequences of a natural disaster. Despite the complexity of human security, this conceptual study can provide the platform for the Malaysian Government to assess the implication of natural disasters and protect human security. Therefore, it is crucial in handling human needs. Such approaches require well-coordinated and quick responses from government and non-government agencies. Furthermore, safety measures or precautions should be pre-planned for human security before the disaster hits.
THE RELIABILITY OF RATING PERCEIVED EXERTION AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH HEART RATE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS
Siti Azilah Atan, Mohammad Fazrul Jafar, Mohd Syrinaz Azli, Jorrye Jakiwa, Mohar Kassim
The aim of this study were to assess the reliability of the RPE scales and the relationship between RPE and HR in young football players (age 15.6 ± 0.4). Twenty male outfield football players (n = 20, 1.67 ± 0.4 m, 55.3 ± 8.4 kg) from the Sekolah Sukan Bukit Jalil (SSBJ) volunteered to participate in this study. The Football Simulation Protocol (FSP), a test that replicates the U15 football match-play was performed on two occasions to determine test-retest reliability of the RPE. The participants performed 4 x 20-min ‘blocks’ of exercise separated by 3 min recovery. Within the rest periods between exercise blocks, RPE and HR were administered. No significant differences was observed between trials in the RPE scales (P >0.05). The Pearson Correlation and ICC showed excellent correlations of the RPE (r= .776, ICC= 0.834, P<0.05). Further assesment of realibility indicating excellent repeatability evidence for the scales (SEM = ± 0.2, 95% CI = ± 0.4). Moderate correlation was found between RPE and HR (r = .581, P< 0.05). In conclusion, the RPE scales is valid and reliable to be use with young football players. The findings also indicates that inclusion of RPE in monitoring training load can provide important information to athletes, coaches and sports scientist.
LISTENER’S PERCEPTION ON SEXIST WORDS IN SELECTED MALAYSIAN HIP HOP LYRICS
Belinda Marie Balraj, Thulasitasan Nadarajah RMN
The study on gender has always been an important research area in the field of popular music studies. While most studies focus on the content analysis of the popular music, there is still a need to research on listener’s perception of popular music lyrics. This study examined 30 listener’s perception on sexist words in selected 20 Malaysian hip hop lyrics. A total of 13 sexist words were analysed using text analysis. To further facilitate the data, the listeners were also given 9 random lyrics which contained sexist words and were asked to rank them from positive, negative or neutral. The data was then tabulated using Google Form. The results showed that listeners are aware of words that denote women to a lower level and yet the words are still used on women, perhaps due to dissatisfaction. The findings show that the respondents are merely going by the flow of what media puts forward which can be related back to the agenda set by the media.
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT FOR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA) ENCEPHALITIS: A CASE REPORT
Mohd Farid Md Yusof, Shalisah Sharip, Suriati Mohamed Saini, Fairuz Nazri Abdul Rahman, Hamid Bin Abdul Rahman, Raihanah binti Abdul Khalid
Encephalitis with unknown etiologies and an uncontrolled seizure pose challenges for effective management. This paper reports on the management of a case of depression and severe cognitive impairment post-acute encephalitis with uncontrolled seizures. All investigations were not significant except for one electroencephalogram finding and positive test for anti-GABA B receptor. Improvement was evident following pharmacological treatment, family sessions and environmental stimulation during the process of identification. Multimodal intervention during the post-acute encephalitis improved depression and quality of life.
ANALYSIS OF INDONESIA'S SHOOTER ATHLETE TRAINING MANAGEMENT ON AUSTRALIAN ARMY SKILL AT ARMS MEETING COMPETITION
Yusuf Ali, Rahmi Yulia
Indonesia as a state with a strategic position that becomes international sea traffic lanes should have a strong and professional military. The professionalism of the soldiers of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) demonstrated by the achievements of the Army shooter athletes at international level competitions. One of the international level competitions that have raised the name of Indonesia every year is the annual AASAM (Australian Army Skills at Arms Meeting). In this competition, from 2008 to 2018 the Army had won this competition for 11 years in a row. Therefore, it becomes interesting to examine the management of exercises carried out by the Indonesian Army on shooter athletes. This research was conducted using qualitative methods. Based on the findings in the field and the results of the researchers' analysis, it can be concluded that the management training conducted by the Army for shooter athletes who participate in the AASAM competition is carried out with a regular chain of command so as to produce controlled activities and can achieve the expected targets. This was achieved because the Army had carried out this activity for many years and every year improvements were made from the results of the evaluation of activities.
BAIL AND THE PRINCIPLE OF GENERALIBUS SPECIALIA DEROGANT IN THE MALAYSIAN MILITARY JUSTICE SYSTEM
Mazura Md Saman, Jamal Rodzi Dahari
This article analyses case law and literature to determine the position of bail in the military criminal justice system. The right to bail is a fundamental human right to liberty, and ensure unfairly imprisonment before trial. The criminal justice system in many countries provides for the right to bail, including Malaysia except for offences such as drug trafficking, kidnapping and crimes which carry the death penalty. However, as the Criminal Procedure Code only applies to civilian courts in Malaysia, military personnel may not enjoy the same treatment under the Armed Forces Act 1972. It is thus essential to investigate the need for the Armed Forces Act 1972 to be reformed to include the right to bail. The finding suggests that the bail should be afforded to military offender charged under the Armed Forces Act 1972 and give the option to the military authorities the discretion to release the accused on a bail, in unanimity to the element of fundamental rights to liberty.