JIHAD KETENTERAAN : PERBANDINGAN TEORI TAFSIRAN KLASIK DAN MODEN
MILITARY JIHAD: A COMPARATIVE THEORY OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN INTERPRETATION
Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohd Yasid
Jihad adalah salah satu tema pokok dalam al-Qur’an. Pembahasan jihad dalam al-Qur’an cukup mewarnai sebagian ayat-ayat al-Qur’an yang diturunkan di Makkah dan Madinah. Hal ini menunjukkan urgensi jihad dalam sejarah pembentukan dan perkembangan syariat Islam. Dengan mengunakan kaedah analisis kandungan, kajian ini mengetengahkan Teori Tafsiran Klasik dan Moden mengenai Peringkat Akhir Jihad Ketenteraan. Pada dasarnya hampir tidak ada perbezaan penafsiran keduanya. Namun, Dari sisi penafsiran Peringkat Akhir Jihad Ketenteraan ini, pentafsir klasik lebih lebih menonjol periwayatan sejarah, hadis maupun asbabul nuzulnya. Sedangkan pentafsir moden lebih menonjolkan sisi yang berkaitan antara ayat-ayat jihad dengan konteks terkini dan penggunaan retorik bahasa.
Jihad is one of the principal themes of the Qur'an. The discussion of jihad in the Qur'an just coloring some verses of the Qur'an was revealed in Makkah and Madinah. This shows the urgency of jihad in the history of the formation and development of Islamic law. This study explores the theory of Classic and Modern Interpretation of the Final Stage Jihad Military. Basically there is almost no difference in the interpretation of both. However, the interpretation of the terms of the Final Jihad's military, even more prominent interpreter of classic narration of the history, traditions and Asbabul nuzul. While modern exegetes further highlight the connection between the verses of jihad with the current context and the use of rhetorical language.
FAKTOR PEMBENTUKAN TINGKAH LAKU BERAGAMA MENURUT AHLI PSIKOLOGI
FACTORS FOR FORMING RELIGIOUS BEHAVIOR ACCORDING TO PSYCHOLOGISTS
Nor Nazimi Mohd Mustaffa, Amnah Saayah Ismail
Tingkah laku beragama adalah tingkah laku yang dilakukan oleh setiap manusia yang mempunyai kepercayaan kepada agama tertentu. Tingkah laku ini dilakukan setiap masa dalam kehidupan seharian mengikut kepercayaan agama yang dianuti. Persoalannya, kenapa dan bagaimana setiap tingkah laku beragama itu terhasil sehingga manusia mengzahirkan tingkah laku tersebut dalam kehidupan seharian mereka. Oleh itu, kertas kerja ini menganalisis punca dan sebab manusia mengzahirkan tingkah laku beragama. Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif melalui pendekatan analisis kandungan dokumen secara reduksi data, penyajian data dan membuat kesimpulan. Kajian ini mensentesis karya klasik Freud dan karya kontemporari daripada Feierman bagi mencapai objektif kajian. Hasil kajian menjelaskan, punca dan sebab tingkah laku beragama adalah naluri manusia. Naluri tersebut adalah interaksi antara pemikiran dan perasaan manusia terhadap persekitaran mereka. Freud menjelaskan, minda sedar dan bawah sedar telah menjadi punca kepada perasaan takut sehingga mengzahirkan tingkah laku beragama. Feierman menyatakan pemikiran terhadap kewujudan Tuhan dan perasaan takut kepada kuasa Tuhan merupakan kecenderungan manusia untuk memenuhi keperluan mereka secara mendalam. Kajian ini telah menjelaskan asal usul dari mana lahirnya tingkah laku beragama yang dizahirkan oleh manusia dalam setiap hari malah setiap masa dilakukan kehidupan seharian mereka.
Religious behavior is the behavior performed by every human being who has a belief in a particular religion. This behavior is done at all times in daily life according to the religious beliefs practiced. The question is, why and how each religious behavior is produced so that human beings manifest such behavior in their daily lives. Therefore, this paper analyzes the causes and causes of human beings expressing religious behavior. This study uses qualitative methodology through document content analysis approach by data reduction, data presentation and inference. This study synthesizes Freud's classical works and contemporary works from Feierman to achieve the objectives of the study. The results of the study explain, the cause and cause of religious behavior is human instinct. Such instinct is the interaction between human thoughts and feelings towards their environment. Freud explained that the conscious and subconscious mind has been the source of fear to the point of expressing religious behavior. Feierman states that thinking about the existence of God and the fear of God's power are human tendencies to meet their needs in depth. This study has explained the origin of the birth of religious behavior that is manifested by human beings in every day and even every day in their daily lives.
MOBILE PHONE USAGE AND HYGIENE: AWARENESS AND PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS IN MALAYSIA
Aye Aye Mon, Halyna Lugova, Thecican Mathivanan, Aimin Aizat Abdul Aziz, Yehsugi Nagendran, Thiviya Suppiah, G Umayal, Nanthini Sridewi
The usage of mobile phones has increased dramatically, and phones become an essential accessory in our personal, social and professional life. Mobile phones can act as a reservoir of many pathogenic organisms. Mobile phones are ideal breeding sites for pathogens as they are kept warm and snug in our pockets and handbags. The important factor of contamination is the personal hygiene level. The aim of the study was to conduct a survey to identify the level of awareness about mobile phone microbial contamination and to assess the hygienic practice of its usage among the young adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 mobile phone users. The data were then analysed descriptively. Chi square test was used to assess the associations between variables. Among the participants, 66% reported that they clean their phone less than once a week, and the majority was generally unaware of the infection risks associated with mobile phone usage. Respondents with tertiary education had higher levels of mobile hygiene practices compared to those with primary or secondary education (p<0.0005). Students had higher levels of mobile phone hygiene compared to unemployed and employed respondents (p=0.009). The respondents older than 25 years old had lower levels of mobile phone hygiene (p=0.002). This study suggests that awareness about mobile phone microbial contamination is lacking. Therefore, multimodal awareness programs are needed to reduce the associated risks.
FACEBOOK AS AN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING TOOL: THE CASE OF THE MALAYSIAN ARMY
Aida Nasirah Abdullaha, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Nurhana Mohd Rafiuddin, Kalthom Husain, Riduan Yusof
Facebook has become increasingly important social media channel, not only in civilian society but also in the military sector. As one of the social media platforms, it can be used as a strategic communication tool for opinion-forming and psychological operations. Facebook is used by big and small organizations to communicate within the public sphere. It can also facilitate communication and interaction with potential recruits, family members, and friends. The Malaysian Army, the biggest component in the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) is aiming to fulfill its vision as a credible Army force in achieving peace and stability for the country. After eighty-six years since its inception, the question rises whether the Malaysian Army remains relevant in communicating information to the general public about security and sovereignty of the nation. Hence, the Malaysian Army optimised its communication strategy by using Facebook to communicate to the people at large in the cyber space. In this study, we conducted a content analysis of the Malaysian Army Facebook to explore its potential in building the influence and empowerment of the Malaysia Army. The results indicated that the the Malaysian Army had moderately operated its Facebook as a communication channel for various military operations and activities, hence it is suggested that they optimize the social media platform to instil the sense of patriotism and the confidence among the people.
PEMBENTUKAN KEPIMPINAN PELAJAR MENERUSI PROGRAM KHIDMAT KOMUNITI DI UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA
FORMATION OF STUDENT LEADERSHIP THROUGH THE COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAMME AT THE NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA
Amnah Saayah Ismail, Nor Nazimi Mohd Mustaffa, Aida Nasirah Abdullah, Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Nurhana Mohd Rafiuddin
Khidmat komuniti bermaksud berkhidmat atau membantu masyarakat sekeliling yang memerlukan bantuan mahupun tunjuk ajar untuk mengurangkan beban mereka. Di Malaysia, peranan mendekati komuniti ini telah dimainkan oleh pelbagai pihak antaranya pihak kerajaan, swasta mahu pun orang perseorangan. Aktiviti ini memberi kesan yang mendalam bukan sahaja kepada pemegang taruh namun masyarakat juga turut terkesan selain individu yang terlibat itu sendiri. Pembudayaan khidmat komuniti turut sama mendapat tempat dalam kalangan warga universiti sama ada kakitangan mahupun para pelajar. Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia tidak terkecuali mengambil inspirasi dari semua pihak di luar sana untuk terlibat sama dalam memberi khidmat kepada komuniti di sekitarnya. Objektif kajian ialah mengenal pasti elemen-elemen yang boleh dibangunkan dalam usaha membentuk kepimpinan pelajar menerusi prograam khidmat komuniti selain meneliti masalah dan cabaran dalam membudayakan khidmat komuniti. Kaedah Penyelidikan yang digunakan dalam penulisan ini ialah berbentuk kualitatif iaitu analisis kandungan dengan menggunakan data-data primer dan sekunder. Dapatan Kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat banyak elemen-elemen program yang boleh dijalankan dalam membudayakan khidmat komuniti di Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia. Program ini dilihat dapat membentuk daya kepimpinan dan kerjasama dalam kalangan pelajar untuk terus mendekati komuniti sekeliling mereka menerusi program-program yang dirancangkan.
Community service means serving or helping the surrounding community in need or guidance to reduce their burden. In Malaysia, the role of this community has been played by many parties, including government, private and individual. This activity has a profound effect not only on the stakeholders but also the community as well as the individuals involved. Community service culture also has a place among university students and staff alike. The National Defense University of Malaysia is no exception to the inspiration of all parties out there to be involved in serving the community around it. The objective of the study was to identify the elements that can be developed in an effort to build student leadership through community service programs as well as to explore the challenges and challenges of community service culture. The research method used in this paper is qualitative form of content analysis using primary and secondary data. The findings of the study show that there are many elements of program that can be implemented in community service culture at the National Defense University of Malaysia. This program is seen to form leadership and cooperation among students to continue to reach out to the community around them through planned programs.
HUBUNGAN ANTARA PENGHAYATAN NILAI INTEGRITI DENGAN PELAKSANAAN SISTEM PENGURUSAN KUALITI MS1900 DI INSTITUSI PENGAJIAN TINGGI SWASTA, MALAYSIA
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF INTEGRITY WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MS1900 IN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING, MALAYSIA
Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed, Azmi Ahmad, Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin, Siti Arni Basir, Burhanuddin Jalal, Mohd Hamran Mohamad, Sayuti Ab Ghani
Dewasa kini, banyak organisasi menghadapi cabaran-cabaran kebejatan nilai atau etika moral dalam kalangan pekerja. Isu salahguna kuasa, rasuah, tidak berdisiplin, tidak berintegriti dan sebagainya telah menjadi tumpuan dalam media massa. Justeru, pelaksanaan Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (SPK) berasaskan Syari’ah (MS1900:2014) seharusnya diangkat menjadi agenda utama dan berperanan penting dalam menerapkan nilai-nilai murni bagi setiap individu pekerja di sesebuah organisasi. Tambahan pula, SPK MS1900 ini merupakan satu piawaian pengurusan kualiti patuh Syari’ah yang pertama telah diperkenalkan di Malaysia dan juga di dunia. Oleh itu, kertas ini bertujuan membincangkan hasil kajian penghayatan nilai integriti dalam pelaksanaan MS1900 ini terhadap para pekerja organisasi yang berjaya memperoleh pensijilannya. Metodologi kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk penyelidikan tinjauan secara kuantitatif menerusi borang soal selidik yang dilakukan terhadap 294 responden yang terdiri daripada para pensyarah, pegawai eksekutif dan pegawai bukan eksekutif di sebuah institusi pengajian tinggi swasta (IPTS) di Malaysia. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penghayatan nilai integriti berkadar langsung dan mempunyai hubungan signifikan dengan kejayaan pelaksanaan piawaian tersebut dalam kalangan pekerja. Rumusannya, dapatan kajian ini menjadi satu titik permulaan kepada organisasi lain untuk berusaha memperoleh piawaian MS1900 dengan memberi penekanan kepada nilai integriti agar ia menjadi amalan dalam usaha untuk mematuhi keperluan Syari’ah Islamiyyah pada setiap masa.
Today, many organizations face challenges to the deterioration of values or moral ethics among employees. The issues of abuse of power, corruption, undiscipline, lack of integrity and so on have become the focus of the mass media. Therefore, the implementation of Quality Management System (QMS) based on Shari'ah (MS1900: 2014) should be raised as the main agenda and play an important role in inculcating good values for each individual employee in an organization. Furthermore, SPK MS1900 is the first Shari’ah-compliant quality management standard that has been introduced in Malaysia and also in the world. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the results of the study of the appreciation of the value of integrity in the implementation of this MS1900 to the employees of the organization who successfully obtained its certification. The methodology of this study uses a quantitative survey research design through a questionnaire conducted on 294 respondents consisting of lecturers, executive officers and non-executive officers in a private institution of higher learning in Malaysia. The findings of the study show that the appreciation of integrity values is directly proportional and has a significant relationship with the successful implementation of these standards among employees. In summary, the findings of this study become a starting point for other organizations to strive to achieve the MS1900 standard by emphasizing the value of integrity so that it becomes a practice in an effort to comply with the requirements of Islamic Shari'ah at all times.
THE FORM OF VIOLENCE AGAINST ROHINGNYA WOMEN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT (RTOP)
Hairunnisa Zakaria, Noraini Binti Zulkifli
Rohingnya women and girls who were systematically targeted based on their ethnic nature and territory, particularly during the two main attack phases from October 2012 to August 2017, during operation of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Myanmar's government has failed massively in protecting them against extreme, widespread violence. The study examined the form of violence against Rohingnya women and girls based on primary and secondary data from 2012 to 2019. The primary data were collected from structured interviews involving informants consist of Rohingnya refugee and specialized in Rohingnya crisis. Secondary data from books, theses, journal papers and online data were collected. This study has three objectives, namely 1) to identify the form of violence; 2) to classify the main perpetrators, and 3) to analyse the Implementation of Responsibility to Protect (RtoP). The findings revealed 1) Rohingnya women and girl’s experienced flagrant, horrific sexual violence and a widespread rape case that showed systemic structure and endorsement; 2) the main perpetrators are Myanmar armed forces, police, Buddhists and other ethnic groups, and 3) the second and third pillars still working even Myanmar failed to protect Rohingya women under pillar one.
TRAINING MANAGEMENT IN THE MALAYSIAN ARMED FORCES RELIGIOUS CORPS PERSONNEL
Burhanuddin Jalal, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Rashid Nordin, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw
Islamic propagation in the Malaysian Army has started since its inception in 1933 and was strengthened with the establishment of the Malaysian Armed Forces Religious Corps (KAGAT) in 1985. The Islamic Propagation efforts implemented by KAGAT in the military institutions have been successful in establishing Islamic appreciation amongst military personnel; strengthening their spiritual and mental aspect so that they have the strong combat power to defend their nation. This paper discussed on the approach used to develop the quality of the Islamic military missionaries or the personnel of the Malaysian Armed Forces Religious Corps or KAGAT). Library research, survey method using questionnaire, interview and observation have been used to gain data related to the preparation and training for the KAGAT personnel. The questionnaire was used as the field study instrument to study the Armed Forces personnel’s perception of the Armed Forces Religious Corps (KAGAT) members. A total of 383 respondents from the Malaysian Armed Forces were used as research samples. Random sampling technique was used and the overall survey result was analysed using the SPSS software where both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to the data collected. Research results showed that the Malaysian Armed Forces personnel perception towards KAGAT members is generally good (high) and this proved that the KAGAT effort to nurture Islamic appreciation amongst Malaysian Armed Forces personnel is achieved.
THE ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POWER AND ITS RELEVANCE TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Ananthan.S, Mohd Nizam Jaffar, Azelan Abu Bakar, Azman Norazman Selamat, Mohd Azmurin Mat Khalid, Saiful Bahari Zainol, Hisyam Harun, Koey Tang Chai
National security is of paramount interests to small states. Security cannot be solely dependent on military might alone. It requires the actions at various fronts including diplomatic, intelligence and economic, and delivered in a concerted effort by a whole-of government and whole-of nation approach. Malaysia is well blessed by the basic instruments of power i.e. diplomacy, informational, military and economic elements (DIME). However, for efficient employment of all these instruments of power, a coherent set of National Security Policy documents must be formulated and implemented with strong leadership at all levels to achieve an effective outcome for National Security. This paper endeavours to investigate how small nations can use their instruments of national power to support their national security objectives. The Malaysian context is used as an example to validate the employment of the various elements of national power to protect and secure the nation whilst confronting the various non-traditional security threats.
KRISIS PERLEMBAGAAN PERAK 2009 DAN KESAN TERHADAP PERPADUAN NASIONAL
THE PERAK CONSTITUTION CRISIS 2009 AND ITS IMPACT ON NATIONAL UNITY
Noor Hishmuddian Rahim, Mohammed Feizol Anuar Hj Ayub, Mohd Radzi Hj Hamid, Ahmad Saifuddin Talha, Farizal Myeor, Mohd Najib Saad, Mohd Zaki Abu, Hamidi Hashim
Kertas ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti punca krisis Perlembagaan Perak. Selain itu, kertas ini untuk mengkaji kesahihan penglibatan Raja Berpelembagaan dan implikasinya terhadap penubuhan kerajaan Negeri Perak. Kertas ini juga menganalisa peranan badan kehakiman dalam menyelesaikan isu kepimpinan politik di Perak. Kertas ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan dua kaedah penyelidikan iaitu pemeriksaan terhadap politik-sejarah dan analisis kandungan pada bahan sekunder. Kaedah tersebut digunakan untuk memahami keadaan dan menentukan prosedur dengan berkesan untuk menjawab isu-isu tersebut. Kertas ini menunjukkan bahawa krisis itu adalah disebabkan oleh tindakan tiga wakil rakyat yang telah melompat parti. Akibatnya, ia membawa kepada keruntuhan kerajaan yang dipilih oleh rakyat dan perpecahan perpaduan di kalangan rakyat. Kajian ini juga mendapati bahawa Sultan Perak telah bertindak di luar kuasa yang dibenarkan oleh Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Perak.Tambahan pula badan kehakiman memainkan peranan penting dalam menentukan kelayakan Menteri Besar. Kes ini telah memberi kesan kepada perpaduan nasional pada peringkat negeri mahupun pada peringkat Persekutuan.
This paper aims to identify the root causes of the Perak Constitution crisis. In addition, this paper is to examine the legitimacy of the involvement of the Constitutional King and its implications for the establishment of the Perak State government. This paper also analyzes the role of the judiciary in resolving political leadership issues in Perak. This paper uses a qualitative approach with two research methods namely examination of political-history and content analysis on secondary materials. The method is used to understand the situation and determine the procedure effectively to answer those issues. This paper shows that the crisis is due to the actions of three elected representatives who have jumped the party. As a result, it led to the collapse of the government elected by the people and the division of unity among the people. This study also found that the Sultan of Perak has acted outside the powers allowed by the Perak State Constitution. In addition, the judiciary plays an important role in determining the qualifications of the Menteri Besar. This case has affected national unity at the state level as well as at the Federal level.
AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS ON NATIONAL’S SECURITY
Nur Surayya Mohd Saudi, Ariffin Ismail, Arman Rumaizi Ahmad, Mohd Zambri Mohamad Raba, Chan Peng Cheong, Mohd Razali Alias, Shahriman Mahmud, Hasnol Hisham Abu Hassan
Socioeconomic development incorporates sustained increase in the economic growth per capita for a country. For instance, economic security is a major element of national security based on the instruments of Diplomacy, Information, Military, and Economic (DIME). As such, this study overview the impacts of socioeconomic issues on Malaysia’s stability and security that contribute to the national power. Hence, the selected macroeconomic determinants, namely inflation, employment rate, and military expenditure, were assessed. The research methodology employed in this study had been based on the comparative approach. The study outcomes revealed strong relationships of the selected macroeconomic determinants with both the stability and security of Malaysia. Investment in defence spending is prescribed to promote the economic growth in Malaysia. This study concludes that socioeconomic development plays an integral role in contributing to the security and the stability of Malaysia. Further discussion, analyses, conclusion, and measures are elaborated.
AIRPOWER AND MALAYSIA’S MARITIME ZONES: REALITY AND RHETORIC
Wong Chooi Ye
Airpower has been the “rising star” since the first World War due to military modernisation and competition in the aviation domain. Malaysia’s ratification of 1982 United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Indo-Pacific mise en scene drive Malaysia to multiple maritime security concerns. Nevertheless, could Malaysia, being a maritime nation, be able to address these maritime-related security issues with airpower? This paper serves four purposes, including define airpower, analyse airpower in the Malaysian perspectives, address airpower in Malaysia’s security complexity, and determining the maritime-related security concerns posed to the nation. This qualitative research explains the phenomena on Malaysia’s application of airpower in securing the broad spectrum maritime borders. Major primary data is obtained from official documentation, in-depth interviews and participation observation. The role of the researcher is also crucial as a key instrument for the study. The study has found out that no doubt Malaysia is facing maritime security issues, particularly non-conventional in nature. In this pursuit, airpower is used as the potentially effective approach for policing Malaysia’s maritime zones and sovereignty. The study suggests enhance application of airpower in Malaysia’s defence and security cooperation with natural partners, such as Australia.
THE EVOLUTION OF COMBAT MOTIVATION IN THE MILITARY
Endrynixon. A., Ananthan. S
Motivation has always been a critical element in any military force in managing soldiers in military missions. The article reviews the evolution that has taken place in motivation factors in managing soldiers over the hostile decades of war and conflicts. Relevant literatures were reviewed to examine motivational factors among soldiers during World War I, World War II and other conflicts in the 20th century. The analysis highlights that although primary cohesion plays an important role, secondary group cohesion has become an additional motivating factor during combat as the nature of conflict progressed from a single combat force to a combined force involving other combat support elements or multinational forces for military missions. The study concludes that the influencing factors of motivation in the military can be categorized into three perspectives. First; individual that surrounds on what is conscientiously right and self satisfaction. Second; social that refers to social responsibility to the country, nation, organisation and unit and finally; organisational which relates to those that provide guidelines and the necessary support to achieve the organisational goal. The review provides an overview of the evolution in motivational factors in a combat environment and suggest for further exploration in non-combat situations.