Vol 2, Issue 2 (2019)

Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

Organizational Commitment among Middle Managers in the Malaysian Army

Inderjit Singh, Kwong Fook Wen, Haslind Abdullah 



Affective, normative and continuance commitment are variables that indicate the organizational commitment of an organization. The purpose of this research is to identify the organizational commitment of middle managers of Senior Non-Commissioned Officers (SNCOs) in the Malaysian Army. The research was based on post-positivist philosophy.  Quantitative approach and non-experimental survey was used for the research.  The data consisting of 458 respondents were collected from soldiers of rank of corporal and below from the combat corps of the Malaysian Army in determining the organizational commitment of SNCOs. The statistical treatment of the data obtained was done by using PLS-SEM in order to determine the plausibility of the data obtained with the hypothesized model of job performance.  This research has identified that organizational commitment of the SNCOs consists of affective, normative and continuance commitment. This research reveals that that both affective and normative commitment are of similar importance for establishing organizational commitment of middle managers in the combat element of the Malaysian Army but normative organizational commitment is more significant compared to affective commitment whereby continuance commitment is not an indicator of organizational commitment in the Malaysian Army.


Kepimpinan Ulama dalam Peristiwa Pemberontakan Pahang (1891-1895):  Peranan Tuan Haji Uthman Bin Senik

Islamic Scholar Leadership in The Pahang Uprising Incident: The Role of Tuan Haji Uthman bin Senik

Amnah Saayah Ismail, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, Khairunnisa Mardzuki, Wong Wai Loong, Haliza Mohd Zahari, Burhanuddin Jalal, Wan Kamal Mujani



Peristiwa pemberontakan Pahang yang berlaku pada penghujung abad ke-19 Masihi menyaksikan wujudnya kepimpinan ulama dalam menyemarakkan semangat jihad dalam jiwa para pejuang. Antara ulama yang hadir dalam peristiwa tersebut ialah Haji Uthman bin Senik. Justeru artikel ini akan membincangkan peranan Haji Uthman bin Senik dalam memimpin para pejuang dalam peristiwa pemberontakan Pahang. Metodologi penulisan ini ialah analisis kandungan dan kajian kepustakaan. Menerusi penulisan ini didapati bahawa terdapat pelbagai peranan hasil kepimpinan Haji Uthman bin Senik iaitu menerusi bidang pengajaran dan penulisan serta penglibatan secara langsung di medan perang. Peranan-peranan ini dikenalpasti berjaya menyatupadukan para pejuang dalam meluahkan semangat anti penjajahan terhadap penjajahan British di negeri Pahang.



The Pahang uprising incident that took place at the end of the 19th century AD witnessed the emergence of the leadership of Islamic scholars who were instrumental in stirring the spirit of jihad amongst independence fighters. Among the Islamic scholars who participated in the uprising was Haji Uthman bin Senik. Hence this article will discuss the role of Haji Uthman bin Senik in leading independence fighters during the Pahang uprising. This paper is based on the methodologies of content analysis and literature study. This paper found that Haji Uthman bin Senik performed various roles of leadership during the uprising i.e. in the fields of teaching and writing and direct combative engagements on the battlefields. His leadership roles were identified as critical factors that successfully unified the independence fighters in the expression of the anti-colonial spirit against British occupation in the state of Pahang.



The Hydration Status of Malaysia’s Young Male Soccer Players during Competitive Season

Siti Azilah Atan, Mohammad Fazrul Jafar, Jorrye Jakiwa, Mohd Syrinaz Azli, Mohar Kassim



Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the preexercise hydration status and to assess body mass (BM) loss (kg) of young male soccer player’s (age 15.6 ± 0.4) training in a hot and humid environment. Methods: Twenty male soccer players (n = 20, 55.3 ± 8.4 kg) from Sekolah Sukan Bukit Jalil (SSBJ), Malaysia had volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements of hydration status were taken on two occasions during competitive season. Urine sample was collected and handheld refractometer was used to assess the urine specific gravity (USG). Body weight was monitored before and after training session. The results showed that the participants were within the normal range of hydration status (1.016 ± 0.01). No significant difference was observed between measurements in USG (1.016 ± 0.01 v 1.017 ± 0.01, p >0.05) and BM loss (kg) (0.20 ± 0.5 vs. 0.24 ± 0.3, p >0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study indicates that the participants have an effective hydration strategy during the training session in competitive season. 


Producing Better Cadets: Considering the Role of Liminality during the Initiation Phase

Ahmad Thamrini Fadzlin Syed Mohamed



Drawing from Meyer and Land (2005) work on Threshold Concepts, this paper describes the role of liminal period in enabling the transition one must partake to become a military officer. To date, not much attention has been given on the process of transformation and challenges faced by cadets in becoming an officer. With focus given on the initiation phase, the study argues that such period is crucial and troublesome as cadet would have to abandon their self-identity to acquire the officers’ mantle. Through in-depth interviews conducted at two prominent European military institutions with policy makers, military trainers, officers and cadets, the paper illustrates how the initiation phase is an important rites-to-passage that will eliminate those deemed unfit to become an officer while embedding the required distinctiveness of being a military officer.  The paper further argues that even though the military education system is highly mechanised, some of the process of imbedding the officers’ identity happens through informal exchanges with superiors, peers and subordinates. Establishing the importance of the phase, findings included in this paper may contribute in understanding why some cadets traverse successfully through the elimination process, while others get themselves stuck on the rites of passage1 to become an officer.


A Preliminary Analysis on the Downfall of Malacca in 1511; Internal and External Factors

Wan Hashim Wan Teh 



The year 1511 is a watershed in the history of the Malay world in general and Malacca empire in particular. It marks the downfall of a great Malay empire ever existed and also the beginning of Western imperialism in this part of the world. It shall be the aim of this paper to analyse the causes of its downfall by taking into consideration both the internal and external factors. In order to have a balanced perspective of the happening, we shall examine both local or indigenous sources, especially the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) as well as foreign sources in particular documents and published materials from the Portuguese which have been translated into English. Areas to be covered for analysis shall be on the internal situation of the Malay kingdom of Malacca in the first decade of the 16th century. In this regard, we shall utilize the concept of assabiyah which has been proposed by Ibn Khaldun in his magnum opus the Muqaddimmah, which suggests assabiyah or loosely translated as ‘integration’ or esprit d’corp as one of the prerequisites for a strong foundation of an empire or a state. In addition, we shall also examine other aspects especially the weakness of Malacca’s armed forces and the defence strategy or the lack of it and including the weapons used as compared with that of the invading force, the Portuguese. Likewise, we shall examine what factors that led to an easy victory of the Portuguese even though they were faced with the Malay fighters who were much superior in numbers. In the final analysis, we shall propose the importance of a kingdom or nation to attain or achieve unity among its population of various races, upholding the asabiyah or esprit de corps and especially having both a professional standing army and a sound defence strategy for it to survive in the long term.