Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

The Challenges Managing Malaysian Border

Noor Azmi Mohd Zainol, Sofian Kamaruddin, Ahmad Azan Ridzuan, Anwar Zamani Jusop 



This article aims to examine the challenges encountered by Malaysia enforcement border agencies to protect the sovereignty of Malaysia and its prospects of integration among various agencies at the border. With a wide boundary, the Malaysian security is porous to various threats which not only mean a traditional military threat but also include a multiple threat. Current threats have been broadening to include non-traditional threats such as terrorism and other transnational criminal i.e. illegal immigrants, human trafficking and smuggling of prohibited goods. In order to control such threats, there are several government agencies and legal enforcement which are responsible to protect Malaysian sovereignty such as The Royal Malaysian Police, Royal Malaysian Customs Department, Malaysian Department of Immigration, and Malaysian Border Control Agency and Malaysian Armed Forces as well.  These agencies are responsible to manage the Malaysian border at various legal checkpoints such as air, sea and land checkpoints. The Malaysian Armed Forces on the other hand, has been responsible to manage illegal route along the Malaysian border especially in the jungle. All the challenges will discuss further in this article.   


Police Special Branch Strategy and Tactics in Eliminating the Second Communist Emergency in Malaysia 1968-1989: An Analysis

Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Noraini Zulkafli, Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman



Malaysia once had faced the insurgency periods which were started by Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) since 1948. However, after they were defeated by the Malayan Security Forces (MSF) in 1960, CPM had once again took the chance to revive their armed struggle by launching a full-scale attack. This marked the beginning of the Second Malaysia Emergency, which lasted for almost 21 years. This research was based on the roles and functions of the Police Special Branch in defeating the communist insurgency. The main primary data of this research was based on open interview while the secondary data were focusing on archival research and academic writings. The findings of this research shown the Police Special Branch have succeeded in eliminating the CPM armed struggled that have been ongoing for 21 years.


Malaysian Peacekeeping Operations in Congo and Somalia: An Overview and Challenges

Najjah Salwa Abd Razak, Ramli Nik, Mhd Faizal Mhd Ramli, Haslinda Abdullah



Malaysia is one of the countries deployed as peacekeepers in Congo and Somalia. The credibility of Malaysian peacekeepers is undeniable as Malaysia keeps gaining recognition at the international level. However, the successes of Malaysian peacekeepers still need to be explored, particularly the previous deployments as well as the current ones. Thus, this paper focuses on the capability of Malaysian peacekeepers assigned in Congo and Somalia. The researchers explore the challenges and efforts of Malaysian peacekeepers towards accomplishing their tasks. This is a multiple case study comprising a series of interviews and library research for data triangulation and thematic analysis. The findings show that the Malaysian peacekeepers deployed in Congo and Somalia apply diverse ways in order to carry out their tasks effectively with some early exposure from their training in Malaysia. There are numerous differences on how they adapt with their tasks from different countries of deployments. The guidelines pertaining to this study are presented as a dimension of prior deployment that is still relevant to the present deployments. 


Hubungan Kecerdasan Emosi dan Motivasi dalam Kalangan Anggota 3 Kor Armor DiRaja (KAD)

Dora Nurlaily Azman, Noraini Zulkifli



Rejimen 3 Kor Armor DiRaja (KAD) merupakan unit berperisai yang penting dalam Tentera Darat Malaysia. Misi 3 KAD adalah “Pasukan Tempur Yang Kredibel Dalam Operasi Ofensif dan Defensif. Dalam melaksanakan tugas sebagai anggota tentera, mereka menghadapi pelbagai risiko di mana tahap kecergasan dan motivasi mereka diuji. Kajian ini mempunyai tiga objektif iaitu 1) Mengenalpasti tahap kecerdasan emosi dan tahap motivasi di kalangan anggota 3 KAD; 2) Menentukan hubungan dimensi kecerdasan emosi dengan motivasi di kalangan anggota 3 KAD; 3) Mengenalpasti perbezaan tahap motivasi berdasarkan demografi (pangkat, status perkahwinan dan tempoh perkhidmatan) di kalangan anggota 3 KAD. Kajian ini menggunakan metod kuantitatif. Data primer dikumpulkan melalui kaedah kaji selidik  terhadap anggota Rejimen 3 KAD. Data sekunder pula dikumpul daripada kajian perpustakaan berdasarkan bahan ilmiah, tesis, artikel jurnal, atau data atas talian. Hasil analisis menunjukkan tahap kecerdasan emosi anggota berada di tahap tinggi manakala motivasi mereka berada di tahap sederhana. . Dapatan  kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa kecerdasan emosi berdasarkan dimensi intrapersonal tidak mempunyai hubungan dengan motivasi, namun berlaku sebaliknya bagi dimensi interpersonal dalam kalangan anggota 3 KAD. Selain itu, hanya satu faktor demografi yang mempunyai perbezaan tahap motivasi secara signifikan iaitu berdasarkan pangkat. Namun kajian mendapati tidak terdapat perbezaan tahap motivasi berdasarkan status perkahwinan dan tempoh perkhidmatan.


Quwwah dalam Al-Quran menurut Tafsiran Klasik dan Moden

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohd Yasid



Quwwah dalam teks Al-Quran yang disalah ertikan sebagai keganasan akibat daripada kurangnya pemahaman ke atas umat Islam untuk melakukan persediaan bagi tujuan pertahanan. Jesteru kajian ini melihat penafsiran quwwah menurut pentafsir klasik dan moden. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kualitatif, kajian ini mendapati bahawa ketiadaan sebarang tafsiran oleh para pentafsir klasik dan moden, yang menyeru "penyalahgunaan" quwwah dengan cara yang membahayakan orang lain.



Quwwah in the Qur'anic text is misinterpreted as violence due to lack of understanding of Muslims to prepare for defense purposes. This study looks at the interpretation of quwwah according to classic and modern interpreters. Using qualitative methods, the study found that the absence of any interpretation by classical and modern interpreters, called for "abuse" of quwwah in a way that is harmful to others. 






Hubungan Kecerdasan Emosi Dengan Tekanan Kerja Dan Kepuasan Kerja Dalam Kalangan Anggota Tentera Darat Malaysia 


Rohingya: Diplomasi Publik Kerajaan Malaysia


Peningkatan Sosial Ekonomi  Melalui Instrumen Wakaf: Kajian di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam di Malaysia


The Future Growth for Malaysian Manufacturing Industry An Application Of  Input – Output Chain Analysis


Character Education of TNI in The Frame of Modernization


Natural Disaster; Its Implication to Human Security   


The Reliability of Rating Perceived Exertion and the Relationship with Heart Rate in Young Soccer Players


Garrison Neurosis: Malaysian Army Perspectives in Psychological Challenges in Low-intensity Warfare


Listener’s Perception on Sexist Words in Selected Malaysian Hip Hop Lyrics





The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Leadership Style Towards Job Performance in Malaysian Army


Applying Security and Development (KESBAN) Model in Transcending Eastern Sabah Security Predicament


Perspektif Pelajar terhadap Cadangan Penambahbaikan Pelaksanaan Latihan Industri bagi Pihak Universiti


Bilateral Relations of Phillipinesa and Malaysia The Era and After of President Marcos


Peranan Tok Ku Paloh Dalam Menyatukan Pejuang Pahang Dalam Peristiwa Pemberontakan Pahang 1891-1895


Abroad versus Local The PhD Experience among PhD Holders in a University in Malaysia Using Postgraduate Research Experience Questionnaire (PREQ)


Israel’s new kind of war in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Archaeology as a national instrument in Jerusalem/Baitul Maqdis


Task and Contextual Job Performance among Middle Managers in the Malaysian Army


Research of the Relationship between Welfare and Morale of Infantry Personnel with Disaster Response Management (PSS 2018)


The Relationship Between Employee Benefits, Employee Empowerment and Workplace Condition Towards Employee Satisfaction in the Retail Industry 


Strategy Logistics and Supply Chain Management Minicont as the World Next Logistics Solution


“One Belt, One Road Initiative”: Effect on Malaysia’s Economy and Regional Policy


Analysis of The Influence of Security Stability and Strategic Industrial Growth on Macroeconomics


Psychotherapeutic Management for Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) encephalitis: a case report


Royal Malaysian Navy’s Operational Issues, Limitation and Challenges in Safeguarding Malaysia’s Maritime Domain and Resources


Assessing the Mediating Effect of Training Motivation between Training Design and Job Performance


Effect of steady state exercise relative to rest on gastrointestinal damage:  exploration of faecal calprotectin utility in short term exercise


An Analysis of Training Management Indonesia's Shooter Athlete on Australian Army Skill At Arms Meeting (AASAM) Competition





Students' Active Roles in Arabic Language Activities in NDUM


Pengaruh Keterikatan Kerja Sebagai Perantara Terhadap Hubungan Antara Kecerdasan Spiritual Dan Komitmen Afektif: Perbandingan Antara Perspektif Barat dan Islam


Pengurusan dakwah organisasi: Kompetensi pendakwah Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera Malaysia





Pengaruh Elemen Ketara terhadap Kualiti Perkhidmatan Masjid Muhammad Al-Fateh UPNM


Tahap Kepuasan pelanggan Terhadap Kualiti Perkhidmatan Masjid Muhammad Al-Fateh UPNM

Dimensi Pengurusan Keselamatan dan Piawaian Pengurus Keselamatan Acara yang Efektif

Dimensi-dimensi Keamanan Negara dan Perpaduan Kaum di Malaysia

Strategi Taktikal: Strategi Jepun Menawan Kelantan dan Strategi British Mempertahankan Kelantan















Organizational Commitment among Middle Managers in the Malaysian Army

Inderjit Singh, Kwong Fook Wen, Haslind Abdullah 



Affective, normative and continuance commitment are variables that indicate the organizational commitment of an organization. The purpose of this research is to identify the organizational commitment of middle managers of Senior Non-Commissioned Officers (SNCOs) in the Malaysian Army. The research was based on post-positivist philosophy.  Quantitative approach and non-experimental survey was used for the research.  The data consisting of 458 respondents were collected from soldiers of rank of corporal and below from the combat corps of the Malaysian Army in determining the organizational commitment of SNCOs. The statistical treatment of the data obtained was done by using PLS-SEM in order to determine the plausibility of the data obtained with the hypothesized model of job performance.  This research has identified that organizational commitment of the SNCOs consists of affective, normative and continuance commitment. This research reveals that that both affective and normative commitment are of similar importance for establishing organizational commitment of middle managers in the combat element of the Malaysian Army but normative organizational commitment is more significant compared to affective commitment whereby continuance commitment is not an indicator of organizational commitment in the Malaysian Army.


Kepimpinan Ulama dalam Peristiwa Pemberontakan Pahang (1891-1895):  Peranan Tuan Haji Uthman Bin Senik

Islamic Scholar Leadership in The Pahang Uprising Incident: The Role of Tuan Haji Uthman bin Senik

Amnah Saayah Ismail, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, Khairunnisa Mardzuki, Wong Wai Loong, Haliza Mohd Zahari, Burhanuddin Jalal, Wan Kamal Mujani



Peristiwa pemberontakan Pahang yang berlaku pada penghujung abad ke-19 Masihi menyaksikan wujudnya kepimpinan ulama dalam menyemarakkan semangat jihad dalam jiwa para pejuang. Antara ulama yang hadir dalam peristiwa tersebut ialah Haji Uthman bin Senik. Justeru artikel ini akan membincangkan peranan Haji Uthman bin Senik dalam memimpin para pejuang dalam peristiwa pemberontakan Pahang. Metodologi penulisan ini ialah analisis kandungan dan kajian kepustakaan. Menerusi penulisan ini didapati bahawa terdapat pelbagai peranan hasil kepimpinan Haji Uthman bin Senik iaitu menerusi bidang pengajaran dan penulisan serta penglibatan secara langsung di medan perang. Peranan-peranan ini dikenalpasti berjaya menyatupadukan para pejuang dalam meluahkan semangat anti penjajahan terhadap penjajahan British di negeri Pahang.



The Pahang uprising incident that took place at the end of the 19th century AD witnessed the emergence of the leadership of Islamic scholars who were instrumental in stirring the spirit of jihad amongst independence fighters. Among the Islamic scholars who participated in the uprising was Haji Uthman bin Senik. Hence this article will discuss the role of Haji Uthman bin Senik in leading independence fighters during the Pahang uprising. This paper is based on the methodologies of content analysis and literature study. This paper found that Haji Uthman bin Senik performed various roles of leadership during the uprising i.e. in the fields of teaching and writing and direct combative engagements on the battlefields. His leadership roles were identified as critical factors that successfully unified the independence fighters in the expression of the anti-colonial spirit against British occupation in the state of Pahang.



The Hydration Status of Malaysia’s Young Male Soccer Players during Competitive Season

Siti Azilah Atan, Mohammad Fazrul Jafar, Jorrye Jakiwa, Mohd Syrinaz Azli, Mohar Kassim



Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the preexercise hydration status and to assess body mass (BM) loss (kg) of young male soccer player’s (age 15.6 ± 0.4) training in a hot and humid environment. Methods: Twenty male soccer players (n = 20, 55.3 ± 8.4 kg) from Sekolah Sukan Bukit Jalil (SSBJ), Malaysia had volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements of hydration status were taken on two occasions during competitive season. Urine sample was collected and handheld refractometer was used to assess the urine specific gravity (USG). Body weight was monitored before and after training session. The results showed that the participants were within the normal range of hydration status (1.016 ± 0.01). No significant difference was observed between measurements in USG (1.016 ± 0.01 v 1.017 ± 0.01, p >0.05) and BM loss (kg) (0.20 ± 0.5 vs. 0.24 ± 0.3, p >0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study indicates that the participants have an effective hydration strategy during the training session in competitive season. 


Producing Better Cadets: Considering the Role of Liminality during the Initiation Phase

Ahmad Thamrini Fadzlin Syed Mohamed



Drawing from Meyer and Land (2005) work on Threshold Concepts, this paper describes the role of liminal period in enabling the transition one must partake to become a military officer. To date, not much attention has been given on the process of transformation and challenges faced by cadets in becoming an officer. With focus given on the initiation phase, the study argues that such period is crucial and troublesome as cadet would have to abandon their self-identity to acquire the officers’ mantle. Through in-depth interviews conducted at two prominent European military institutions with policy makers, military trainers, officers and cadets, the paper illustrates how the initiation phase is an important rites-to-passage that will eliminate those deemed unfit to become an officer while embedding the required distinctiveness of being a military officer.  The paper further argues that even though the military education system is highly mechanised, some of the process of imbedding the officers’ identity happens through informal exchanges with superiors, peers and subordinates. Establishing the importance of the phase, findings included in this paper may contribute in understanding why some cadets traverse successfully through the elimination process, while others get themselves stuck on the rites of passage1 to become an officer.


A Preliminary Analysis on the Downfall of Malacca in 1511; Internal and External Factors

Wan Hashim Wan Teh 



The year 1511 is a watershed in the history of the Malay world in general and Malacca empire in particular. It marks the downfall of a great Malay empire ever existed and also the beginning of Western imperialism in this part of the world. It shall be the aim of this paper to analyse the causes of its downfall by taking into consideration both the internal and external factors. In order to have a balanced perspective of the happening, we shall examine both local or indigenous sources, especially the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) as well as foreign sources in particular documents and published materials from the Portuguese which have been translated into English. Areas to be covered for analysis shall be on the internal situation of the Malay kingdom of Malacca in the first decade of the 16th century. In this regard, we shall utilize the concept of assabiyah which has been proposed by Ibn Khaldun in his magnum opus the Muqaddimmah, which suggests assabiyah or loosely translated as ‘integration’ or esprit d’corp as one of the prerequisites for a strong foundation of an empire or a state. In addition, we shall also examine other aspects especially the weakness of Malacca’s armed forces and the defence strategy or the lack of it and including the weapons used as compared with that of the invading force, the Portuguese. Likewise, we shall examine what factors that led to an easy victory of the Portuguese even though they were faced with the Malay fighters who were much superior in numbers. In the final analysis, we shall propose the importance of a kingdom or nation to attain or achieve unity among its population of various races, upholding the asabiyah or esprit de corps and especially having both a professional standing army and a sound defence strategy for it to survive in the long term.




Kalah dalam Menang: Pasukan Angkatan Khas (Special Forces) Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam Melawan Insurgensi

(Winning and Losing: The United States Army Special Forces in countering the Insurgency)

Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkifli



Pasukan Angkatan Khas (PAK) ditubuhkan pada tahun 1963 dan berperanan sebagai sebuah unit elit tempur Pasukan Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat. Peranan PAK ketika dalam Perang Vietnam amat besar, dengan memberi tumpuan terhadap pelaksanaan peperangan melawan insurgensi komunis. Penubuhan PAK telah memberi suatu impak yang besar dalam pembangunan doktrin melawan insurgensi sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat di Vietnam. Peranan PAK dalam menjalankan operasi sulit seperti kerja-kerja sabotaj, membunuh pegawai tinggi pihak musuh, mengumpul maklumat perisikan tempur serta aktiviti penculikan di lapangan telah meningkatkan kredibiliti pasukan tersebut. Malah, PAK menjadi pasukan yang digeruni pihak musuh ketika berada di medan tempur. Kemampuan PAK untuk beroperasi dengan menyusup jauh ke kawasan pihak musuh, memberikan kelebihan taktikal kepada Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam usaha menghapuskan ancaman komunis di Vietnam. Kajian ini adalah berdasarkan peranan Pasukan Angkatan Khas Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam melawan insurgensi sewaktu Perang Vietnam 1963-1975. Hasil kajian akan memperlihatkan sejauh mana PAK telah memainkan peranannya ketika Perang Vietnam sehingga mampu memberi impak keseluruhan dalam peperangan tersebut serta mencorak peranan PAK dalam menentang keganasan global pada hari ini.



The United States Army Special Forces (SF) was established in 1963 and served as an elite fighting groups. The functions of the SF during the events of the Vietnam War was vital in concentrating the implementation of the counter-insurgency warfare against the Communist inssurections. The establishment of the SF has enlarged the functions of the Special Operations Forces in eliminating the communist insurgencies as mainly in Vietnam, the SF had been responsible to carried out covert operations including sabotage missions behind enemy lines, eliminating high ranking enemy officials, intelligence gathering operations, and field kidnapping. The SF was an elite groups that intimidated by the enemy forces while they operated on the field. The ability of the SF to penetrate deeply behind enemy lines has provides significance tactical advatages to the United States Army in eliminating the communist forces. This research was based on the roles of the SF in counter-insurgency throughout the Vietnam War 1963-1975. The outcomes of this research will enlight the readers what are the roles, effects, and contribution of the SF during the Vietnam War and at the same time, preparing the elite forces on the global war on terrorism respectively.



Jepun sebagai Kuasa Maritim Asia Pasifik

(Japan as Asia Pacific’s Maritime Power)

Noraini Zulkifli



Jepun merupakan sebuah negara yang tidak mempunyai pasukan ketenteraan seperti mana negara lain kerana tertakluk kepada Perjanjian keselamatan dengan Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1947 (merujuk kepada Artikel 9). Negara tersebut hanya dibenarkan untuk mempunyai Pasukan keselamatan yang dikenali sebagai Self- Defense Force (SDF) di mana pasukan lautnya dikenali sebagai Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF). Walaupun begitu pasukan – pasukan ini mempunyai kekuatan dan kemahiran yang setaraf dengan pasukan tentera. Keinginan Jepun untuk menjadi sebuah negara kuasa maritim di Asia Pasifik telah meningkat sejak China mula memodenkan aset serta menambahkan bilangan anggota tentera lautnya. Beberapa pembaharuan dalam pasukan serta polisi telah dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kecekapan selain meluaskan skop penyertaan di peringkat antarabangsa untuk menjadi pemain global. Namun sejauh mana negara Jepun mampu untuk menjadi kuasa maritim di Asia Pasifik setelah beberapa polisi keselamatan diubah sejak tahun 2004. Dengan menggunakan kajian antara tahun 2001- 2015, kajian ini menghujahkan kemampuan Jepun untuk bertindak sebagai pemain global melalui pasukan Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF). Kajian ini mempunyai dua objektif, iaitu untuk 1) Analisis Keupayaan Jepun sebagai Kuasa Maritim Asia Pasifik; 2) Analisis keupayaan Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) sebagai pasukan pertahanan laut Jepun. Dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa Jepun perlu mengatasi faktor domestik seperti masalah kekurangan sumber manusia terlebih dahulu sebelum ia dapat menjadi pemain utama di peringkat Asia Pasifik.



Japan is a country that does not have the military force as other countries as subject to a Security Agreement with the United States in 1947 (refer to Article 9). That country is only allowed to have security forces known as the Self- Defense Force (SDF) and Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) to protect its maritime territories. However, these group having the same strength and capabilities as troops. Japan’s desire to be a maritime power in Asia Pasific has increasing after China upgraded its maritime assets and enhanced the naval volume, where its has seems as threat to Japan. Several renewals in the team and policies had been done to enhancing competence, beside that it also to widen the scope of accompaniment in an international area as a global player. But the degree Japan’s capable of becoming a maritime power in Asia-Pacific after some security policy changed since 2004. This study has two objectives, namely to 1) analyse the ability of Japan as Asia Pacific’s maritime power, 2) analyse the Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF). The finding of this study is that, Japan need to overcome the entire domestic factors like the shrinking of population before she can be the main maritime power in Asia Pacific.



Pengaruh Keterikatan Kerja terhadap Komitmen Organisasi: Kajian dalam Agensi Keselamatan di Malaysia

(The Impact of Work Engagement on Organizational Commitment: A Study in a Security Agency in Malaysia)

Rogis Baker, Rosmah Mohamed, Ahmad Azan Ridzuan, Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed, Mohd Nasir Selamat, Hasimi Sallehuddin



Keterikatan kerja dan komitmen organisasi merupakan dua faktor yang penting dan perlu diberi penekanan terhadap tingkah laku organisasi. Kedua-dua faktor ini adalah berbeza kerana keterikatan mendorong kepada komitmen di mana komitmen tidak dapat dicapai tanpa keterikatan daripada pekerja. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan secara langsung antara keterikatan kerja dengan komitmen afektif. Seramai 372 pegawai polis daripada lima kontinjen iaitu Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, Sarawak dan Sabah telah dipilih sebagai sampel kajian. Keputusan kajian ini melalui pengujian hipotesis menggunakan PLS-SEM telah mendapati keterikatan kerja mempunyai hubungan positif yang kuat dan signifikan dengan komitmen afektif. Keterikatan kerja didapati mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat terhadap peningkatan komitmen afektif dalam kalangan pegawai polis. Oleh itu, pegawai polis yang memberi penyertaan secara menyeluruh terhadap tugas akan lebih mempamerkan kesetiaan dan komited terhadap organisasi.



Job engagement and organizational commitment are two important factors and need to be emphasized on organizational behavior. Both are different, as job engagement drives commitment, commitment cannot be achieved without employee engagement. The focus of this study is to investigate the direct relationship between job engagement and affective commitment. The study was conducted on 372 police officers in five states, namely Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, Sarawak and Sabah were selected as a sample. The result of this study using PLS-SEM hypothesis testing showed that job engagement has a strong significant and positive direct relationship with the affective commitment. Job engagement was found to have a strong influence on increasing affective commitment among police officers. Therefore, police officers who give full participation to the task will be more loyal to and committed to the organization.



Asian Values from the Political Perspective

Wan Hashim Wan Teh



This paper attempts to make a generalization on the values of Asian societies, though with examples of only from some selected Asian societies. By recognizing each society differs in details with one another, we shall argue that there is a general pattern and some similarities in terms of what we called Asian values among them. Most obvious to us is that religion and belief systems seem to form the core values of almost all Asian societies whether it is Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism and others, past and present. Secondly, in most societies too, religion seems to become an integral part of their political systems in the past and the present time. The transformative impact of modernization from the West does not seem to erode this traditional characteristics of most Asian societies.



Identification of Need in Capital Asset Procurement

Haliza Mohd Zahari, Wong Wai Loong, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, Khairunnisa Mardzuki, Amnah Saayah Ismail



The main objectives of procurement are to acquire the right product with the right quantity. The procurement office gathers all the requirements and identifies possible suppliers. This involves obtaining the lowest purchase price for high quality products, ensuring suppliers reliability and maintain transparency in the procurement process. This paper reviews the current study of procurement process and explored the prerequisite in identifying the need before the procurement process begins based on qualitative studies through semi-structured interview and document analysis in the perspectives of Defence landscape. The findings revealed that the current procurement process should include the concept and requirement analysis before making decision on purchasing the capital asset. Based on the study, findings it will be benefitted to the ministry and other government agencies on requirement to be consider before purchasing a new capital asset.



Achieving Academic Excellence at the Defence University: No Challenges Are a Real Challenge?

Jowati Juhary, Ahmad Fahimi Amir, Ummul Fahri Abdul Rauf, Mohd Rizal Mohd Isa, Nurhana Mohamad Rafiuddin, Wan Farizatul Shima Wan Ahmad Fakuradzi



After 11 years of inception, the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM) has produced about 3,000 graduates inclusive of military cadets and civilians. A very small number indeed, given its status as a boutique university. The questions addressed in this paper are twofold. First, how do the students perceive their learning environment, and second, what are the biggest challenges for the students to excel academically. These questions arise from the disturbing trends in the number of students who are not able to perform in their examinations as well as their behaviours illustrated during classroom learning. Therefore, this paper examines the challenges that are faced by the Defence University students and ultimately, outlines two (2) suggestions for more effective teaching and learning for the university. This paper adopts a quantitative approach to research where the data are obtained from a survey conducted on the students. The quantitative data are then analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24. Preliminary findings suggest that students are mostly positive about their learning environment; nonetheless, there are two (2) aspects that must be further investigated and addressed immediately to ensure more engaged and meaningful learning at the NDUM.



Pemikiran Strategik Ketenteraan Berdasarkan Teks Arab Klasik ‘Tafrij Al-Kurub Fi Tadbir Al-Hurub’ oleh Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi 1353-1408 M

(Strategic Military Thinking based on the Classic Arab Text ‘Tafrij Al-Kurub Fi Tadbir Al-Hurub’ by Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi 1353-1408 M)

Burhanuddin Jalal, Azlan Iskandar Abdul Ghani, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Mohd Kamarul Amree Mohd Sarkam, Mohamed Shah Hussin Shah



Peperangan merupakan salah satu daripada pelbagai wajah peradaban, Peperangan juga berpunca daripada permusuhan, persengketaan dan perselisihan. Dalam konteks kajian peradaban dan peperangan banyak buku-buku ditulis oleh tokoh-tokoh ilmuwan Barat dan juga bekas kepimpinan ketenteraan dari negara Barat. Buku-buku seperti Sunzi bingfa karya Sun Tzu, Vom Kriege tulisan Carl Von Clausewitz dan buku The Prince karya Niccolo Machiavelli yang membuktikan terdapatnya kajian-kajian awal tentang peperangan dari perspektif Barat. Selain dari itu terdapatnya buku Tafrij al-Khurub fi Tadbir al-Hurub (Meleraikan Kekusutan Dalam Pengurusan Peperangan) oleh Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi (1353-1408 M) yang merupakan karya asli berkaitan peperangan dalam Islam. Kertas ini akan menjelaskan serta menjawab persoalan apakah orang Islam juga mempunyai tradisi penyediaan ketenteraan dan peperangan seperti dunia Barat. Objektif utama kajian berdasarkan teks klasik tersebut ialah, menghuraikan isi kandungan teks klasik berkaitan dengan peperangan dalam Islam, menjelaskan konsep peperangan dalam Islam berdasarkan teks klasik tersebut serta menganalisis kandungan teks serta membuat perbandingan ilmu ketenteraan masa kini. Kaedah kajian yang digunakan ialah analisis kandungan teks dan juga kajian perpustakaan. Secara umumnya, kajian ini telah menemukan sejarah awal ketenteraan Islam yang merangkumi aspek strategi dan pengurusan ketenteraan serta peperangan dari perspektif Islam. Melalui kajian ini juga dapat menemukan tamadun Islam turut mempunyai manual peperangannya sendiri yang lebih awal berbanding tamadun lain sekaligus menghasilkan pemikiran strategik ketenteraan yang telah menjadi tulang belakang kepada pemerintahan dan pembinaan negara pada zaman kegemilangan Islam.



One of the important facets of human civilisation is the waging of wars as a method of resolving issues. Within the context of the study of war, scholars, practitioners and the generals public are very much familiar with classical works such as the Art of War by Sun Tzu, The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli and the much studied On War(Vom Krieg) by the celebrated Carl Von Clausewitz. Tafrij al-Kurub fi Tadbir al-Hurub was authored by Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi (1353-1408 AD). He lived in the period when vast area of Southern Europe, the Levant, the Middle East and the Central Asia were ruled by Islamic dynasties.   It was a time when these regions were in transition and there were constant conflict not only between Christian and Muslim states but also within the Muslim world as well. Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi scholarly works ia treasure trove of the study of strategis thought art of command, aspects of preparations for military campaign, facet on military administration as well as methods of warfare that appears to be a civilisations of the Islamic  world’s military thought and practice during the late middle ages. Significantly, al-Awasi’s work appears to reflect contemporary Islamic strategic thought and doctrinal practice at a time when Muslim ruled lands range from the Liberian Peninsular from the west to throughout the Middle East, passing through Bactria and ending in Mughal ruled India. The research on al-Awasi’s scholarly craft is mainly text based and comparison is made to current military strategic thought that encompasses the body of knowledge as espoused by Sun Tzu, Machiavelli and Von Clausewitz. The commentary contributes to the discourse of strategic thought as well as operational art in Bahasa Malaysia, thus making it them available to a wider audience, especially for those who are students as well as practitioners of strategic studies, war studies, military history and operational arts and last but not least the general public.



Konflik Palestin dan Israel: Peperangan dan Diplomasi yang Tiada Penghujung?

(Palestine and Israel: Endless War and Diplomacy)

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli, Rohaimi Rastam



Pertikaian berterusan antara Israel dan Palestin yang bermula semenjak pertengahan abad ke-20, mencetus apa yang dipanggil sebagai konflik Israel-Palestin. Pertikaian ini mendapat julukan “konflik paling rumit”, dengan kegiatan penempatan berterusan penduduk Israel di Tebing Barat dan Semenanjung Gaza. Israel dan Palestin tidak mencapai kata sepakat sekalipun proses damai jangka panjang dan perdamaian umum Israel dengan Mesir dan Jordan dilaksanakan. Makalah ini menelusuri konflik sepanjang tahun 1947 hingga 2000. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kualitatif analisis dijalankan terhadap perjanjian damai yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan peperangan tersebut dan persoalan mengenainya dinyatakan didalam makalah ini. Akhirnya dapatan daripada makalah ini konflik akan terus berlaku kerana tujuan peperangan antara Israel dan Palestin adalah tidak jelas dan perlu adanya perundingan yang telah disepakati dari pihak Israel mahupun Palestin sebagai komitmen untuk mencapai perdamaian.



The controversial dispute between Israel and Palestine, which began in the mid-20th century, prompted the so-called Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The dispute came to be the epithet of the "most complicated conflict", with the continued settlement of the Israeli population in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israel and Palestine have not reached a consensus despite the long-term peace process and Israel's common peace with Egypt and Jordan. This paper traces the conflict throughout the years 1947 to 2000. Using the qualitative methods of analysis carried out on the peace agreement used to resolve the war and the question of it is stated in this paper. Finally, the findings of this paper conflict will continue to occur because the purpose of the war between Israel and Palestine is unclear and the need for negotiations agreed upon by both Israel and Palestine as a commitment to achieving peace.



Konsep Zikir Menurut Hadith Bersumberkan al-Kutub al-Sittah

(The Concept of Dhikr Based on Hadith in al-Kutub al-Sittah)

Mohammad Fahmi Abdul Hamid, Ishak Suliaman



Zikir merupakan amalan yang disyariatkan dalam Islam serta banyak disebutkan di dalam al-Quran dan Hadith Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. Peranan zikir sangat luar biasa kerana ianya boleh membersih dan menyucikan jiwa manusia serta dapat mendekatkan diri kepada Allah s.w.t. Oleh itu, untuk berzikir kepada Allah, setiap Muslim harus mengetahui konsep zikir berpandukan kepada al-Quran dan Hadith kerana ia merupakan sumber yang dijamin kesahihannya dan tidak boleh dipertikaikan. Maka, artikel ini menghuraikan konsep zikir bersumberkan hadith berkaitan zikir dalam al-Kutub al-Sittah. Fakta yang dikumpulkan daripada hadith berkaitan zikir dianalisis melalui kaedah kualitatif. Hasil menunjukkan bahawa keseluruhan hadith dalam al-Kutub al-Sittah berkaitan zikir adalah sebanyak 312 hadith (termasuk bilangan hadith berulang) iaitu 247 merupakan Hadith Sahih, 39 Hadith Daif, 16 Hadith Hasan, empat Hadith Hasan Sahih, empat Hadith Munkar dan dua Hadith Daif Jiddan. Konklusinya, konsep zikir menurut Nabi s.a.w meliputi tujuh aspek iaitu anjuran dan jenis zikir, kaedah berzikir, kadar suara, waktu, lafaz dan bilangan, tempat dan ganjaran zikir. Penemuan kajian ini boleh dijadikan rujukan berkenaan konsep zikir mengikut hadith Nabi s.a.w.



Dhikr is a practice that is prescribed in Islam and widely mentioned in the al-Quran and al-Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. The role of dhikr is very peculiar because it can cleanse and purify the human soul and can bring human soul closer to Allah s.w.t. Every Muslim should know the concept of dhikr based on the al-Quran and al-Hadith because these two sources that are guaranteed legitimacy and cannot be disputed. This article describes the concept of dhikr according to the hadith of the Prophet s.a.w based on hadith related to dhikr in al-Kutub al-Sittah. Facts gain from this study were analyzed via quantitative and qualitative methods and results have shown that in al-Kutub al-Sittah, there were 312 hadith related to dhikr and from this total (including repeated hadith), 247 were hadith sahih, 39 were hadith daif, 16 were hadith hasan, four were hadith hasan sahih, four were hadith munkar and two were hadith daif jiddan. Conclusion, the concept of dhikr according to the Prophet s.a.w covers seven aspects namely as type, method, voice volume, timing, pronouncement, number, venue and reward of dhikr. Findings of this study can be used as a reference for dhikr’s concept according to the hadith of Prophet s.a.w.



Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO) in Latin America: Various Definitions and Impact to National Security

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkafli@Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli



Latin America is an important geographical zone for the production and distribution of drugs. Andean countries such as Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are the major producers of cocaine in the world, while Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean have been the major corridors for transporting drugs to the United States and Europe. Using the literature study, this paper discusses the Defining Difference of Drug Distribution Organization and Its Impact on National Security in Latin America in the 21st century. As a result, countries in the region have experienced various drug trafficking problems that threaten national security. Throughout the region this, drug production and distribution, there is increased violence, corruption, the eradication of rule of law, and human rights violations caused by the emergence of powerful organized criminal groups and drug cartels.

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