Zulfaqar IJDMSSH

International Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

Achieving Academic Excellence at the Defence University: No Challenges Are a Real Challenge?

Jowati Juhary, Ahmad Fahimi Amir, Ummul Fahri Abdul Rauf, Mohd Rizal Mohd Isa, Nurhana Mohamad Rafiuddin, Wan Farizatul Shima Wan Ahmad Fakuradzi

 

Abstract

After 11 years of inception, the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM) has produced about 3,000 graduates inclusive of military cadets and civilians. A very small number indeed, given its status as a boutique university. The questions addressed in this paper are twofold. First, how do the students perceive their learning environment, and second, what are the biggest challenges for the students to excel academically. These questions arise from the disturbing trends in the number of students who are not able to perform in their examinations as well as their behaviours illustrated during classroom learning. Therefore, this paper examines the challenges that are faced by the Defence University students and ultimately, outlines two (2) suggestions for more effective teaching and learning for the university. This paper adopts a quantitative approach to research where the data are obtained from a survey conducted on the students. The quantitative data are then analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24. Preliminary findings suggest that students are mostly positive about their learning environment; nonetheless, there are two (2) aspects that must be further investigated and addressed immediately to ensure more engaged and meaningful learning at the NDUM.

 

 

Pemikiran Strategik Ketenteraan Berdasarkan Teks Arab Klasik ‘Tafrij Al-Kurub Fi Tadbir Al-Hurub’ oleh Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi 1353-1408 M

(Strategic Military Thinking based on the Classic Arab Text ‘Tafrij Al-Kurub Fi Tadbir Al-Hurub’ by Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi 1353-1408 M)

Burhanuddin Jalal, Azlan Iskandar Abdul Ghani, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Mohd Kamarul Amree Mohd Sarkam, Mohamed Shah Hussin Shah

 

Abstrak

Peperangan merupakan salah satu daripada pelbagai wajah peradaban, Peperangan juga berpunca daripada permusuhan, persengketaan dan perselisihan. Dalam konteks kajian peradaban dan peperangan banyak buku-buku ditulis oleh tokoh-tokoh ilmuwan Barat dan juga bekas kepimpinan ketenteraan dari negara Barat. Buku-buku seperti Sunzi bingfa karya Sun Tzu, Vom Kriege tulisan Carl Von Clausewitz dan buku The Prince karya Niccolo Machiavelli yang membuktikan terdapatnya kajian-kajian awal tentang peperangan dari perspektif Barat. Selain dari itu terdapatnya buku Tafrij al-Khurub fi Tadbir al-Hurub (Meleraikan Kekusutan Dalam Pengurusan Peperangan) oleh Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi (1353-1408 M) yang merupakan karya asli berkaitan peperangan dalam Islam. Kertas ini akan menjelaskan serta menjawab persoalan apakah orang Islam juga mempunyai tradisi penyediaan ketenteraan dan peperangan seperti dunia Barat. Objektif utama kajian berdasarkan teks klasik tersebut ialah, menghuraikan isi kandungan teks klasik berkaitan dengan peperangan dalam Islam, menjelaskan konsep peperangan dalam Islam berdasarkan teks klasik tersebut serta menganalisis kandungan teks serta membuat perbandingan ilmu ketenteraan masa kini. Kaedah kajian yang digunakan ialah analisis kandungan teks dan juga kajian perpustakaan. Secara umumnya, kajian ini telah menemukan sejarah awal ketenteraan Islam yang merangkumi aspek strategi dan pengurusan ketenteraan serta peperangan dari perspektif Islam. Melalui kajian ini juga dapat menemukan tamadun Islam turut mempunyai manual peperangannya sendiri yang lebih awal berbanding tamadun lain sekaligus menghasilkan pemikiran strategik ketenteraan yang telah menjadi tulang belakang kepada pemerintahan dan pembinaan negara pada zaman kegemilangan Islam.

 

Abstract

One of the important facets of human civilisation is the waging of wars as a method of resolving issues. Within the context of the study of war, scholars, practitioners and the generals public are very much familiar with classical works such as the Art of War by Sun Tzu, The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli and the much studied On War(Vom Krieg) by the celebrated Carl Von Clausewitz. Tafrij al-Kurub fi Tadbir al-Hurub was authored by Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi (1353-1408 AD). He lived in the period when vast area of Southern Europe, the Levant, the Middle East and the Central Asia were ruled by Islamic dynasties.   It was a time when these regions were in transition and there were constant conflict not only between Christian and Muslim states but also within the Muslim world as well. Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi scholarly works ia treasure trove of the study of strategis thought art of command, aspects of preparations for military campaign, facet on military administration as well as methods of warfare that appears to be a civilisations of the Islamic  world’s military thought and practice during the late middle ages. Significantly, al-Awasi’s work appears to reflect contemporary Islamic strategic thought and doctrinal practice at a time when Muslim ruled lands range from the Liberian Peninsular from the west to throughout the Middle East, passing through Bactria and ending in Mughal ruled India. The research on al-Awasi’s scholarly craft is mainly text based and comparison is made to current military strategic thought that encompasses the body of knowledge as espoused by Sun Tzu, Machiavelli and Von Clausewitz. The commentary contributes to the discourse of strategic thought as well as operational art in Bahasa Malaysia, thus making it them available to a wider audience, especially for those who are students as well as practitioners of strategic studies, war studies, military history and operational arts and last but not least the general public.

 

 

Konflik Palestin dan Israel: Peperangan dan Diplomasi yang Tiada Penghujung?

(Palestine and Israel: Endless War and Diplomacy)

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli, Rohaimi Rastam

 

Abstrak

Pertikaian berterusan antara Israel dan Palestin yang bermula semenjak pertengahan abad ke-20, mencetus apa yang dipanggil sebagai konflik Israel-Palestin. Pertikaian ini mendapat julukan “konflik paling rumit”, dengan kegiatan penempatan berterusan penduduk Israel di Tebing Barat dan Semenanjung Gaza. Israel dan Palestin tidak mencapai kata sepakat sekalipun proses damai jangka panjang dan perdamaian umum Israel dengan Mesir dan Jordan dilaksanakan. Makalah ini menelusuri konflik sepanjang tahun 1947 hingga 2000. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kualitatif analisis dijalankan terhadap perjanjian damai yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan peperangan tersebut dan persoalan mengenainya dinyatakan didalam makalah ini. Akhirnya dapatan daripada makalah ini konflik akan terus berlaku kerana tujuan peperangan antara Israel dan Palestin adalah tidak jelas dan perlu adanya perundingan yang telah disepakati dari pihak Israel mahupun Palestin sebagai komitmen untuk mencapai perdamaian.

 

Abstract

The controversial dispute between Israel and Palestine, which began in the mid-20th century, prompted the so-called Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The dispute came to be the epithet of the "most complicated conflict", with the continued settlement of the Israeli population in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israel and Palestine have not reached a consensus despite the long-term peace process and Israel's common peace with Egypt and Jordan. This paper traces the conflict throughout the years 1947 to 2000. Using the qualitative methods of analysis carried out on the peace agreement used to resolve the war and the question of it is stated in this paper. Finally, the findings of this paper conflict will continue to occur because the purpose of the war between Israel and Palestine is unclear and the need for negotiations agreed upon by both Israel and Palestine as a commitment to achieving peace.

 

 

Konsep Zikir Menurut Hadith Bersumberkan al-Kutub al-Sittah

(The Concept of Dhikr Based on Hadith in al-Kutub al-Sittah)

Mohammad Fahmi Abdul Hamid, Ishak Suliaman

 

Abstrak

Zikir merupakan amalan yang disyariatkan dalam Islam serta banyak disebutkan di dalam al-Quran dan Hadith Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. Peranan zikir sangat luar biasa kerana ianya boleh membersih dan menyucikan jiwa manusia serta dapat mendekatkan diri kepada Allah s.w.t. Oleh itu, untuk berzikir kepada Allah, setiap Muslim harus mengetahui konsep zikir berpandukan kepada al-Quran dan Hadith kerana ia merupakan sumber yang dijamin kesahihannya dan tidak boleh dipertikaikan. Maka, artikel ini menghuraikan konsep zikir bersumberkan hadith berkaitan zikir dalam al-Kutub al-Sittah. Fakta yang dikumpulkan daripada hadith berkaitan zikir dianalisis melalui kaedah kualitatif. Hasil menunjukkan bahawa keseluruhan hadith dalam al-Kutub al-Sittah berkaitan zikir adalah sebanyak 312 hadith (termasuk bilangan hadith berulang) iaitu 247 merupakan Hadith Sahih, 39 Hadith Daif, 16 Hadith Hasan, empat Hadith Hasan Sahih, empat Hadith Munkar dan dua Hadith Daif Jiddan. Konklusinya, konsep zikir menurut Nabi s.a.w meliputi tujuh aspek iaitu anjuran dan jenis zikir, kaedah berzikir, kadar suara, waktu, lafaz dan bilangan, tempat dan ganjaran zikir. Penemuan kajian ini boleh dijadikan rujukan berkenaan konsep zikir mengikut hadith Nabi s.a.w.

 

Abstract

Dhikr is a practice that is prescribed in Islam and widely mentioned in the al-Quran and al-Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. The role of dhikr is very peculiar because it can cleanse and purify the human soul and can bring human soul closer to Allah s.w.t. Every Muslim should know the concept of dhikr based on the al-Quran and al-Hadith because these two sources that are guaranteed legitimacy and cannot be disputed. This article describes the concept of dhikr according to the hadith of the Prophet s.a.w based on hadith related to dhikr in al-Kutub al-Sittah. Facts gain from this study were analyzed via quantitative and qualitative methods and results have shown that in al-Kutub al-Sittah, there were 312 hadith related to dhikr and from this total (including repeated hadith), 247 were hadith sahih, 39 were hadith daif, 16 were hadith hasan, four were hadith hasan sahih, four were hadith munkar and two were hadith daif jiddan. Conclusion, the concept of dhikr according to the Prophet s.a.w covers seven aspects namely as type, method, voice volume, timing, pronouncement, number, venue and reward of dhikr. Findings of this study can be used as a reference for dhikr’s concept according to the hadith of Prophet s.a.w.

 

 

Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO) in Latin America: Various Definitions and Impact to National Security

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkafli@Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli

 

Abstract

Latin America is an important geographical zone for the production and distribution of drugs. Andean countries such as Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are the major producers of cocaine in the world, while Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean have been the major corridors for transporting drugs to the United States and Europe. Using the literature study, this paper discusses the Defining Difference of Drug Distribution Organization and Its Impact on National Security in Latin America in the 21st century. As a result, countries in the region have experienced various drug trafficking problems that threaten national security. Throughout the region this, drug production and distribution, there is increased violence, corruption, the eradication of rule of law, and human rights violations caused by the emergence of powerful organized criminal groups and drug cartels.

Shut the Door! Military Cooperation at the Borders: Malaysian Initiatives and Capabilities

Mohd Zaini Salleh, Adam Leong Kok Wey

 

Abstract

Malaysia has porous borders and some of these areas have significant security threats emerging from criminal smuggling activities, illegal immigration, and militant incursions.  The Malaysian armed forces and security agencies are taxed to the limit with their finite resources in mitigating these threats.  This paper traces the historical strategic dimension/context of these areas’ security threats and their respective contexts behind it.  It describes the various security initiatives to counter these threats by their regions and provides an analysis for the way forward, which is by close collaboration and sharing of resources with Malaysia’s neighbouring states in securing mutual borders.  

 

 

Islam dan Pembentukan Kepimpinan Berkualiti

(Islam and the Formation of Leadership Quality)

Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed

 

Abstrak

Penekanan akhlak dan moral dalam pembentukan Model Kepimpinan Islam yang berkualiti adalah merupakan satu unsur yang penting. Model Kepimpinan Islam yang sering dibincangkan oleh para sarjana Muslim akan difokuskan dalam artikel ini agar dapat diaplikasikan oleh seseorang pemimpin yang ingin berjaya dalam kepimpinannya. Justeru, metodologi kajian ini menggunakan kaedah secara kualitatif yang membabitkan sorotan lepas serta kajian perpustakaan dengan dalil-dalil Naqli dan Aqli berkaitan dengan kepemimpinan Islam. Hasilnya, pengkaji mendapati bahawa prinsip-prinsip dalam Model Kepimpinan Islam yang menekankan akhlak dan moral meliputi: Nilai Tawhid, Syarat dan Ciri-ciri Pemimpin, Organisasi (Jama’ah), Konsep Shura, Subordinat (Pengikut), Pendidikan Berterusan dan Faktor Persekitaran. Di samping itu, artikel ini juga akan menyentuh berkenaan dengan cabaran dan langkah-langkah bagi melahirkan pemimpin yang menekankan aspek akhlak dan moral dalam melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawab dengan lebih akauntabiliti dan berkualiti seiring dengan ajaran yang telah disarankan oleh Islam.

 

Abstract

The emphasis on values and moral is important in the formation of a first-class Islamic Leadership Model. The frequently discussed Islamic Leadership Model among Muslim scholars will be the focus of this article, so that it can be applied by leaders who aspire to be successful in his leadership. Thus, this research is of qualitative in nature whereby it involves literature reviews and library research supported by both Naqli and Aqli evidences related to Islamic Leadership. Based on the results, the researcher found that the principles of Islamic Leadership Model that emphasise on values and moral include; Tawhid [Values on the Unity of God], Conditions and Characteristics of a Leader, Jama’ah [Congregational], Shura Concept [Concept of Discussion], Subordination [Followers], Lifelong Learning and Environmental Factors. In addition, this article will also address the challenges and steps needed in order to produce leaders who accentuate the aspect of values and morality in carrying out their duties and responsibilities with greater accountability and quality in line with the teachings that Islam has recommended.

 

 

Konsep Wakaf dalam Islam: Satu Analisis Mengikut Ulama Empat Mazhab

(The Concept of Waqf in Islam: An Analysis from the Perspective of Four Madzhabs in Islam)

Sayuti Ab Ghani, Redwan Yasin, Burhanuddin Jalal

 

Abstrak

Ibadah wakaf merupakan merupakan satu ibadah yang amat dituntut dalam Islam. Pensyariatan ibadah wakaf secara dasarnya telah dinyatakan di dalam al-Qu’ran mahupun al-Hadith. Oleh sebab itu, untuk memahami ibadah wakaf secara terperinci seharusnya dirujuk kepada perbincangan ulama mazhab bagi mendapat gambaran sebenar tentang ibadah wakaf agar wakaf yang dilakukan mendapat ganjaran pahala baik di dunia mahupun di akhirat oleh Allah SWT. Dengan ini, satu analisis dilakukan berkenaan konsep yang telah diutarakan oleh ulama mazhab bagi memperolehi panduan dalam melaksanakan ibadah yang amat dituntut oleh Islam. 

 

Abstract

Waqf is one of the strongly encouraged worship in the view of Islamic religion. Basically, the obligatory of waqf is stated in both main Islamic references al-Qu’ran and al-Hadith. Therefore, in order for a muslim to understand completely about waqf in detail, it should be referred to the discussion among the scholars of the madzhab in getting a holistic and exact understanding of waqf, which help to obtain the bless and reward from Allah SWT. In this paper, an analysis is conducted to study about the classical concept that been formed by the muslim scholars. It is important for us as the modern muslim to seek guidance and knowledge to practice waqf in Islam accordingly.

 

 

The Use of ADFELPS Writing Scale to Test the Writing Levels of Malaysian Armed Forces Officers

Surjeet Singh Peara Singh

 

Abstract

The Australian Defence Force English Language Profiling System (ADFELPS) is an English language proficiency rating system used to assess the English language skills of Malaysian candidates and to describe the levels of English required for target courses conducted by the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) and the New Zealand Defence Forces (NZDF). It covers all the four language skills i.e. Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking and it is graded from Level 1 to a maximum of Level 9 which is a native speaker’s proficiency. Currently, Malaysian officers have some difficulty in getting Level 7 and above for the ADFELPS Writing Scale. Although there are some officers who are at Level 7 or Level 8 in the other language skills, they have difficulty in obtaining Level 6 to Level 7 for the Writing skill. A three day English language writing workshop was held at the Armed Forces Library to improve the writing skills of Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) Officers. The main aim of this course was to improve the writing skills for MAF officers especially for officers who are selected for overseas courses where the minimum ADFELPS level is a Level 6. The course covered grammar, coherent and cohesive writing, analyzing a typical five paragraph essay, culminating in the students being given two essays and being graded at ADFELPS writing scales. The results show that there has been a deterioration of writing skills of MAF officers and some of the problems related to writing will be discussed in this paper.

 

 

Military Training OR Education for Future Officers at Tertiary Level

Ahmad Thamrini Fadzlin Syed Mohamed, Afifah Quraishah Nasir, Nur Khadirah Ab Rahman, Emily Abd Rahman

 

Abstract

Military officers’ education (MOE) is intended towards transforming ordinary civilians into a distinct men and women of arms. Keeping up to the present social requirement, MOE institutions nowadays mirrors their civilian counterparts to produce academically trained military officers who can face the future challenge of the nation’s security interests into a broader regional and global context. This however created a well-established tension between the academia and the warrior-soldiers on the legitimacy and the significance of higher-level education among the future military personnel. In order to further understand this phenomenon, this phenomenography study adopts in-depth semi-structured interviews, the study had interviewed seven (n=7) Policy makers, twenty-four (n=24) teachers, lecturers and military trainers, and twenty-seven (n=29) cadets at two prominent MOE institution in Europe. Findings from the study suggest that there are two divergent and often conflicting discourses over the adoption of tertiary level education in the training of military officers. Moreover, at its current state, the combination between higher education and military training may had put the system under certain strain thus resulting in an overstuffed curriculum. The findings in this study could offer an alternative way of looking at the ever-preceding debate on the importance of training and education in the delivering future officers, but also on the military practice itself.