Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

Shut the Door! Military Cooperation at the Borders: Malaysian Initiatives and Capabilities

Mohd Zaini Salleh, Adam Leong Kok Wey



Malaysia has porous borders and some of these areas have significant security threats emerging from criminal smuggling activities, illegal immigration, and militant incursions.  The Malaysian armed forces and security agencies are taxed to the limit with their finite resources in mitigating these threats.  This paper traces the historical strategic dimension/context of these areas’ security threats and their respective contexts behind it.  It describes the various security initiatives to counter these threats by their regions and provides an analysis for the way forward, which is by close collaboration and sharing of resources with Malaysia’s neighbouring states in securing mutual borders.  



Islam dan Pembentukan Kepimpinan Berkualiti

(Islam and the Formation of Leadership Quality)

Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed



Penekanan akhlak dan moral dalam pembentukan Model Kepimpinan Islam yang berkualiti adalah merupakan satu unsur yang penting. Model Kepimpinan Islam yang sering dibincangkan oleh para sarjana Muslim akan difokuskan dalam artikel ini agar dapat diaplikasikan oleh seseorang pemimpin yang ingin berjaya dalam kepimpinannya. Justeru, metodologi kajian ini menggunakan kaedah secara kualitatif yang membabitkan sorotan lepas serta kajian perpustakaan dengan dalil-dalil Naqli dan Aqli berkaitan dengan kepemimpinan Islam. Hasilnya, pengkaji mendapati bahawa prinsip-prinsip dalam Model Kepimpinan Islam yang menekankan akhlak dan moral meliputi: Nilai Tawhid, Syarat dan Ciri-ciri Pemimpin, Organisasi (Jama’ah), Konsep Shura, Subordinat (Pengikut), Pendidikan Berterusan dan Faktor Persekitaran. Di samping itu, artikel ini juga akan menyentuh berkenaan dengan cabaran dan langkah-langkah bagi melahirkan pemimpin yang menekankan aspek akhlak dan moral dalam melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawab dengan lebih akauntabiliti dan berkualiti seiring dengan ajaran yang telah disarankan oleh Islam.



The emphasis on values and moral is important in the formation of a first-class Islamic Leadership Model. The frequently discussed Islamic Leadership Model among Muslim scholars will be the focus of this article, so that it can be applied by leaders who aspire to be successful in his leadership. Thus, this research is of qualitative in nature whereby it involves literature reviews and library research supported by both Naqli and Aqli evidences related to Islamic Leadership. Based on the results, the researcher found that the principles of Islamic Leadership Model that emphasise on values and moral include; Tawhid [Values on the Unity of God], Conditions and Characteristics of a Leader, Jama’ah [Congregational], Shura Concept [Concept of Discussion], Subordination [Followers], Lifelong Learning and Environmental Factors. In addition, this article will also address the challenges and steps needed in order to produce leaders who accentuate the aspect of values and morality in carrying out their duties and responsibilities with greater accountability and quality in line with the teachings that Islam has recommended.



Konsep Wakaf dalam Islam: Satu Analisis Mengikut Ulama Empat Mazhab

(The Concept of Waqf in Islam: An Analysis from the Perspective of Four Madzhabs in Islam)

Sayuti Ab Ghani, Redwan Yasin, Burhanuddin Jalal



Ibadah wakaf merupakan merupakan satu ibadah yang amat dituntut dalam Islam. Pensyariatan ibadah wakaf secara dasarnya telah dinyatakan di dalam al-Qu’ran mahupun al-Hadith. Oleh sebab itu, untuk memahami ibadah wakaf secara terperinci seharusnya dirujuk kepada perbincangan ulama mazhab bagi mendapat gambaran sebenar tentang ibadah wakaf agar wakaf yang dilakukan mendapat ganjaran pahala baik di dunia mahupun di akhirat oleh Allah SWT. Dengan ini, satu analisis dilakukan berkenaan konsep yang telah diutarakan oleh ulama mazhab bagi memperolehi panduan dalam melaksanakan ibadah yang amat dituntut oleh Islam. 



Waqf is one of the strongly encouraged worship in the view of Islamic religion. Basically, the obligatory of waqf is stated in both main Islamic references al-Qu’ran and al-Hadith. Therefore, in order for a muslim to understand completely about waqf in detail, it should be referred to the discussion among the scholars of the madzhab in getting a holistic and exact understanding of waqf, which help to obtain the bless and reward from Allah SWT. In this paper, an analysis is conducted to study about the classical concept that been formed by the muslim scholars. It is important for us as the modern muslim to seek guidance and knowledge to practice waqf in Islam accordingly.



The Use of ADFELPS Writing Scale to Test the Writing Levels of Malaysian Armed Forces Officers

Surjeet Singh Peara Singh



The Australian Defence Force English Language Profiling System (ADFELPS) is an English language proficiency rating system used to assess the English language skills of Malaysian candidates and to describe the levels of English required for target courses conducted by the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) and the New Zealand Defence Forces (NZDF). It covers all the four language skills i.e. Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking and it is graded from Level 1 to a maximum of Level 9 which is a native speaker’s proficiency. Currently, Malaysian officers have some difficulty in getting Level 7 and above for the ADFELPS Writing Scale. Although there are some officers who are at Level 7 or Level 8 in the other language skills, they have difficulty in obtaining Level 6 to Level 7 for the Writing skill. A three day English language writing workshop was held at the Armed Forces Library to improve the writing skills of Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) Officers. The main aim of this course was to improve the writing skills for MAF officers especially for officers who are selected for overseas courses where the minimum ADFELPS level is a Level 6. The course covered grammar, coherent and cohesive writing, analyzing a typical five paragraph essay, culminating in the students being given two essays and being graded at ADFELPS writing scales. The results show that there has been a deterioration of writing skills of MAF officers and some of the problems related to writing will be discussed in this paper.



Military Training OR Education for Future Officers at Tertiary Level

Ahmad Thamrini Fadzlin Syed Mohamed, Afifah Quraishah Nasir, Nur Khadirah Ab Rahman, Emily Abd Rahman



Military officers’ education (MOE) is intended towards transforming ordinary civilians into a distinct men and women of arms. Keeping up to the present social requirement, MOE institutions nowadays mirrors their civilian counterparts to produce academically trained military officers who can face the future challenge of the nation’s security interests into a broader regional and global context. This however created a well-established tension between the academia and the warrior-soldiers on the legitimacy and the significance of higher-level education among the future military personnel. In order to further understand this phenomenon, this phenomenography study adopts in-depth semi-structured interviews, the study had interviewed seven (n=7) Policy makers, twenty-four (n=24) teachers, lecturers and military trainers, and twenty-seven (n=29) cadets at two prominent MOE institution in Europe. Findings from the study suggest that there are two divergent and often conflicting discourses over the adoption of tertiary level education in the training of military officers. Moreover, at its current state, the combination between higher education and military training may had put the system under certain strain thus resulting in an overstuffed curriculum. The findings in this study could offer an alternative way of looking at the ever-preceding debate on the importance of training and education in the delivering future officers, but also on the military practice itself.

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