Vol 1, Issue 2 (2018)

International Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

Achieving Academic Excellence at the Defence University: No Challenges Are a Real Challenge?

Jowati Juhary, Ahmad Fahimi Amir, Ummul Fahri Abdul Rauf, Mohd Rizal Mohd Isa, Nurhana Mohamad Rafiuddin, Wan Farizatul Shima Wan Ahmad Fakuradzi

 

Abstract

After 11 years of inception, the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM) has produced about 3,000 graduates inclusive of military cadets and civilians. A very small number indeed, given its status as a boutique university. The questions addressed in this paper are twofold. First, how do the students perceive their learning environment, and second, what are the biggest challenges for the students to excel academically. These questions arise from the disturbing trends in the number of students who are not able to perform in their examinations as well as their behaviours illustrated during classroom learning. Therefore, this paper examines the challenges that are faced by the Defence University students and ultimately, outlines two (2) suggestions for more effective teaching and learning for the university. This paper adopts a quantitative approach to research where the data are obtained from a survey conducted on the students. The quantitative data are then analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24. Preliminary findings suggest that students are mostly positive about their learning environment; nonetheless, there are two (2) aspects that must be further investigated and addressed immediately to ensure more engaged and meaningful learning at the NDUM.

 

 

Pemikiran Strategik Ketenteraan Berdasarkan Teks Arab Klasik ‘Tafrij Al-Kurub Fi Tadbir Al-Hurub’ oleh Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi 1353-1408 M

(Strategic Military Thinking based on the Classic Arab Text ‘Tafrij Al-Kurub Fi Tadbir Al-Hurub’ by Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi 1353-1408 M)

Burhanuddin Jalal, Azlan Iskandar Abdul Ghani, Sayuti Ab Ghani, Amnah Saayah Ismail, Mohd Kamarul Amree Mohd Sarkam, Mohamed Shah Hussin Shah

 

Abstrak

Peperangan merupakan salah satu daripada pelbagai wajah peradaban, Peperangan juga berpunca daripada permusuhan, persengketaan dan perselisihan. Dalam konteks kajian peradaban dan peperangan banyak buku-buku ditulis oleh tokoh-tokoh ilmuwan Barat dan juga bekas kepimpinan ketenteraan dari negara Barat. Buku-buku seperti Sunzi bingfa karya Sun Tzu, Vom Kriege tulisan Carl Von Clausewitz dan buku The Prince karya Niccolo Machiavelli yang membuktikan terdapatnya kajian-kajian awal tentang peperangan dari perspektif Barat. Selain dari itu terdapatnya buku Tafrij al-Khurub fi Tadbir al-Hurub (Meleraikan Kekusutan Dalam Pengurusan Peperangan) oleh Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi (1353-1408 M) yang merupakan karya asli berkaitan peperangan dalam Islam. Kertas ini akan menjelaskan serta menjawab persoalan apakah orang Islam juga mempunyai tradisi penyediaan ketenteraan dan peperangan seperti dunia Barat. Objektif utama kajian berdasarkan teks klasik tersebut ialah, menghuraikan isi kandungan teks klasik berkaitan dengan peperangan dalam Islam, menjelaskan konsep peperangan dalam Islam berdasarkan teks klasik tersebut serta menganalisis kandungan teks serta membuat perbandingan ilmu ketenteraan masa kini. Kaedah kajian yang digunakan ialah analisis kandungan teks dan juga kajian perpustakaan. Secara umumnya, kajian ini telah menemukan sejarah awal ketenteraan Islam yang merangkumi aspek strategi dan pengurusan ketenteraan serta peperangan dari perspektif Islam. Melalui kajian ini juga dapat menemukan tamadun Islam turut mempunyai manual peperangannya sendiri yang lebih awal berbanding tamadun lain sekaligus menghasilkan pemikiran strategik ketenteraan yang telah menjadi tulang belakang kepada pemerintahan dan pembinaan negara pada zaman kegemilangan Islam.

 

Abstract

One of the important facets of human civilisation is the waging of wars as a method of resolving issues. Within the context of the study of war, scholars, practitioners and the generals public are very much familiar with classical works such as the Art of War by Sun Tzu, The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli and the much studied On War(Vom Krieg) by the celebrated Carl Von Clausewitz. Tafrij al-Kurub fi Tadbir al-Hurub was authored by Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi (1353-1408 AD). He lived in the period when vast area of Southern Europe, the Levant, the Middle East and the Central Asia were ruled by Islamic dynasties.   It was a time when these regions were in transition and there were constant conflict not only between Christian and Muslim states but also within the Muslim world as well. Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Awasi scholarly works ia treasure trove of the study of strategis thought art of command, aspects of preparations for military campaign, facet on military administration as well as methods of warfare that appears to be a civilisations of the Islamic  world’s military thought and practice during the late middle ages. Significantly, al-Awasi’s work appears to reflect contemporary Islamic strategic thought and doctrinal practice at a time when Muslim ruled lands range from the Liberian Peninsular from the west to throughout the Middle East, passing through Bactria and ending in Mughal ruled India. The research on al-Awasi’s scholarly craft is mainly text based and comparison is made to current military strategic thought that encompasses the body of knowledge as espoused by Sun Tzu, Machiavelli and Von Clausewitz. The commentary contributes to the discourse of strategic thought as well as operational art in Bahasa Malaysia, thus making it them available to a wider audience, especially for those who are students as well as practitioners of strategic studies, war studies, military history and operational arts and last but not least the general public.

 

 

Konflik Palestin dan Israel: Peperangan dan Diplomasi yang Tiada Penghujung?

(Palestine and Israel: Endless War and Diplomacy)

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli, Rohaimi Rastam

 

Abstrak

Pertikaian berterusan antara Israel dan Palestin yang bermula semenjak pertengahan abad ke-20, mencetus apa yang dipanggil sebagai konflik Israel-Palestin. Pertikaian ini mendapat julukan “konflik paling rumit”, dengan kegiatan penempatan berterusan penduduk Israel di Tebing Barat dan Semenanjung Gaza. Israel dan Palestin tidak mencapai kata sepakat sekalipun proses damai jangka panjang dan perdamaian umum Israel dengan Mesir dan Jordan dilaksanakan. Makalah ini menelusuri konflik sepanjang tahun 1947 hingga 2000. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kualitatif analisis dijalankan terhadap perjanjian damai yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan peperangan tersebut dan persoalan mengenainya dinyatakan didalam makalah ini. Akhirnya dapatan daripada makalah ini konflik akan terus berlaku kerana tujuan peperangan antara Israel dan Palestin adalah tidak jelas dan perlu adanya perundingan yang telah disepakati dari pihak Israel mahupun Palestin sebagai komitmen untuk mencapai perdamaian.

 

Abstract

The controversial dispute between Israel and Palestine, which began in the mid-20th century, prompted the so-called Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The dispute came to be the epithet of the "most complicated conflict", with the continued settlement of the Israeli population in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israel and Palestine have not reached a consensus despite the long-term peace process and Israel's common peace with Egypt and Jordan. This paper traces the conflict throughout the years 1947 to 2000. Using the qualitative methods of analysis carried out on the peace agreement used to resolve the war and the question of it is stated in this paper. Finally, the findings of this paper conflict will continue to occur because the purpose of the war between Israel and Palestine is unclear and the need for negotiations agreed upon by both Israel and Palestine as a commitment to achieving peace.

 

 

Konsep Zikir Menurut Hadith Bersumberkan al-Kutub al-Sittah

(The Concept of Dhikr Based on Hadith in al-Kutub al-Sittah)

Mohammad Fahmi Abdul Hamid, Ishak Suliaman

 

Abstrak

Zikir merupakan amalan yang disyariatkan dalam Islam serta banyak disebutkan di dalam al-Quran dan Hadith Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. Peranan zikir sangat luar biasa kerana ianya boleh membersih dan menyucikan jiwa manusia serta dapat mendekatkan diri kepada Allah s.w.t. Oleh itu, untuk berzikir kepada Allah, setiap Muslim harus mengetahui konsep zikir berpandukan kepada al-Quran dan Hadith kerana ia merupakan sumber yang dijamin kesahihannya dan tidak boleh dipertikaikan. Maka, artikel ini menghuraikan konsep zikir bersumberkan hadith berkaitan zikir dalam al-Kutub al-Sittah. Fakta yang dikumpulkan daripada hadith berkaitan zikir dianalisis melalui kaedah kualitatif. Hasil menunjukkan bahawa keseluruhan hadith dalam al-Kutub al-Sittah berkaitan zikir adalah sebanyak 312 hadith (termasuk bilangan hadith berulang) iaitu 247 merupakan Hadith Sahih, 39 Hadith Daif, 16 Hadith Hasan, empat Hadith Hasan Sahih, empat Hadith Munkar dan dua Hadith Daif Jiddan. Konklusinya, konsep zikir menurut Nabi s.a.w meliputi tujuh aspek iaitu anjuran dan jenis zikir, kaedah berzikir, kadar suara, waktu, lafaz dan bilangan, tempat dan ganjaran zikir. Penemuan kajian ini boleh dijadikan rujukan berkenaan konsep zikir mengikut hadith Nabi s.a.w.

 

Abstract

Dhikr is a practice that is prescribed in Islam and widely mentioned in the al-Quran and al-Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. The role of dhikr is very peculiar because it can cleanse and purify the human soul and can bring human soul closer to Allah s.w.t. Every Muslim should know the concept of dhikr based on the al-Quran and al-Hadith because these two sources that are guaranteed legitimacy and cannot be disputed. This article describes the concept of dhikr according to the hadith of the Prophet s.a.w based on hadith related to dhikr in al-Kutub al-Sittah. Facts gain from this study were analyzed via quantitative and qualitative methods and results have shown that in al-Kutub al-Sittah, there were 312 hadith related to dhikr and from this total (including repeated hadith), 247 were hadith sahih, 39 were hadith daif, 16 were hadith hasan, four were hadith hasan sahih, four were hadith munkar and two were hadith daif jiddan. Conclusion, the concept of dhikr according to the Prophet s.a.w covers seven aspects namely as type, method, voice volume, timing, pronouncement, number, venue and reward of dhikr. Findings of this study can be used as a reference for dhikr’s concept according to the hadith of Prophet s.a.w.

 

 

Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO) in Latin America: Various Definitions and Impact to National Security

Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkafli@Zulkifli, Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Muhammad Farhan Zulkifli

 

Abstract

Latin America is an important geographical zone for the production and distribution of drugs. Andean countries such as Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are the major producers of cocaine in the world, while Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean have been the major corridors for transporting drugs to the United States and Europe. Using the literature study, this paper discusses the Defining Difference of Drug Distribution Organization and Its Impact on National Security in Latin America in the 21st century. As a result, countries in the region have experienced various drug trafficking problems that threaten national security. Throughout the region this, drug production and distribution, there is increased violence, corruption, the eradication of rule of law, and human rights violations caused by the emergence of powerful organized criminal groups and drug cartels.