Vol 2, Issue 1 (2019)

International Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities

Kalah dalam Menang: Pasukan Angkatan Khas (Special Forces) Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam Melawan Insurgensi

(Winning and Losing: The United States Army Special Forces in countering the Insurgency)

Amer Fawwaz Mohamad Yasid, Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman, Noraini Zulkifli

 

Abstrak

Pasukan Angkatan Khas (PAK) ditubuhkan pada tahun 1963 dan berperanan sebagai sebuah unit elit tempur Pasukan Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat. Peranan PAK ketika dalam Perang Vietnam amat besar, dengan memberi tumpuan terhadap pelaksanaan peperangan melawan insurgensi komunis. Penubuhan PAK telah memberi suatu impak yang besar dalam pembangunan doktrin melawan insurgensi sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat di Vietnam. Peranan PAK dalam menjalankan operasi sulit seperti kerja-kerja sabotaj, membunuh pegawai tinggi pihak musuh, mengumpul maklumat perisikan tempur serta aktiviti penculikan di lapangan telah meningkatkan kredibiliti pasukan tersebut. Malah, PAK menjadi pasukan yang digeruni pihak musuh ketika berada di medan tempur. Kemampuan PAK untuk beroperasi dengan menyusup jauh ke kawasan pihak musuh, memberikan kelebihan taktikal kepada Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam usaha menghapuskan ancaman komunis di Vietnam. Kajian ini adalah berdasarkan peranan Pasukan Angkatan Khas Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam melawan insurgensi sewaktu Perang Vietnam 1963-1975. Hasil kajian akan memperlihatkan sejauh mana PAK telah memainkan peranannya ketika Perang Vietnam sehingga mampu memberi impak keseluruhan dalam peperangan tersebut serta mencorak peranan PAK dalam menentang keganasan global pada hari ini.

 

Abstract

The United States Army Special Forces (SF) was established in 1963 and served as an elite fighting groups. The functions of the SF during the events of the Vietnam War was vital in concentrating the implementation of the counter-insurgency warfare against the Communist inssurections. The establishment of the SF has enlarged the functions of the Special Operations Forces in eliminating the communist insurgencies as mainly in Vietnam, the SF had been responsible to carried out covert operations including sabotage missions behind enemy lines, eliminating high ranking enemy officials, intelligence gathering operations, and field kidnapping. The SF was an elite groups that intimidated by the enemy forces while they operated on the field. The ability of the SF to penetrate deeply behind enemy lines has provides significance tactical advatages to the United States Army in eliminating the communist forces. This research was based on the roles of the SF in counter-insurgency throughout the Vietnam War 1963-1975. The outcomes of this research will enlight the readers what are the roles, effects, and contribution of the SF during the Vietnam War and at the same time, preparing the elite forces on the global war on terrorism respectively.

 

 

Jepun sebagai Kuasa Maritim Asia Pasifik

(Japan as Asia Pacific’s Maritime Power)

Noraini Zulkifli

 

Abstrak

Jepun merupakan sebuah negara yang tidak mempunyai pasukan ketenteraan seperti mana negara lain kerana tertakluk kepada Perjanjian keselamatan dengan Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1947 (merujuk kepada Artikel 9). Negara tersebut hanya dibenarkan untuk mempunyai Pasukan keselamatan yang dikenali sebagai Self- Defense Force (SDF) di mana pasukan lautnya dikenali sebagai Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF). Walaupun begitu pasukan – pasukan ini mempunyai kekuatan dan kemahiran yang setaraf dengan pasukan tentera. Keinginan Jepun untuk menjadi sebuah negara kuasa maritim di Asia Pasifik telah meningkat sejak China mula memodenkan aset serta menambahkan bilangan anggota tentera lautnya. Beberapa pembaharuan dalam pasukan serta polisi telah dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kecekapan selain meluaskan skop penyertaan di peringkat antarabangsa untuk menjadi pemain global. Namun sejauh mana negara Jepun mampu untuk menjadi kuasa maritim di Asia Pasifik setelah beberapa polisi keselamatan diubah sejak tahun 2004. Dengan menggunakan kajian antara tahun 2001- 2015, kajian ini menghujahkan kemampuan Jepun untuk bertindak sebagai pemain global melalui pasukan Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF). Kajian ini mempunyai dua objektif, iaitu untuk 1) Analisis Keupayaan Jepun sebagai Kuasa Maritim Asia Pasifik; 2) Analisis keupayaan Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) sebagai pasukan pertahanan laut Jepun. Dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa Jepun perlu mengatasi faktor domestik seperti masalah kekurangan sumber manusia terlebih dahulu sebelum ia dapat menjadi pemain utama di peringkat Asia Pasifik.

 

Abstract

Japan is a country that does not have the military force as other countries as subject to a Security Agreement with the United States in 1947 (refer to Article 9). That country is only allowed to have security forces known as the Self- Defense Force (SDF) and Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) to protect its maritime territories. However, these group having the same strength and capabilities as troops. Japan’s desire to be a maritime power in Asia Pasific has increasing after China upgraded its maritime assets and enhanced the naval volume, where its has seems as threat to Japan. Several renewals in the team and policies had been done to enhancing competence, beside that it also to widen the scope of accompaniment in an international area as a global player. But the degree Japan’s capable of becoming a maritime power in Asia-Pacific after some security policy changed since 2004. This study has two objectives, namely to 1) analyse the ability of Japan as Asia Pacific’s maritime power, 2) analyse the Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF). The finding of this study is that, Japan need to overcome the entire domestic factors like the shrinking of population before she can be the main maritime power in Asia Pacific.

 

 

Pengaruh Keterikatan Kerja terhadap Komitmen Organisasi: Kajian dalam Agensi Keselamatan di Malaysia

(The Impact of Work Engagement on Organizational Commitment: A Study in a Security Agency in Malaysia)

Rogis Baker, Rosmah Mohamed, Ahmad Azan Ridzuan, Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed, Mohd Nasir Selamat, Hasimi Sallehuddin

 

Abstrak

Keterikatan kerja dan komitmen organisasi merupakan dua faktor yang penting dan perlu diberi penekanan terhadap tingkah laku organisasi. Kedua-dua faktor ini adalah berbeza kerana keterikatan mendorong kepada komitmen di mana komitmen tidak dapat dicapai tanpa keterikatan daripada pekerja. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan secara langsung antara keterikatan kerja dengan komitmen afektif. Seramai 372 pegawai polis daripada lima kontinjen iaitu Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, Sarawak dan Sabah telah dipilih sebagai sampel kajian. Keputusan kajian ini melalui pengujian hipotesis menggunakan PLS-SEM telah mendapati keterikatan kerja mempunyai hubungan positif yang kuat dan signifikan dengan komitmen afektif. Keterikatan kerja didapati mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat terhadap peningkatan komitmen afektif dalam kalangan pegawai polis. Oleh itu, pegawai polis yang memberi penyertaan secara menyeluruh terhadap tugas akan lebih mempamerkan kesetiaan dan komited terhadap organisasi.

 

Abstract

Job engagement and organizational commitment are two important factors and need to be emphasized on organizational behavior. Both are different, as job engagement drives commitment, commitment cannot be achieved without employee engagement. The focus of this study is to investigate the direct relationship between job engagement and affective commitment. The study was conducted on 372 police officers in five states, namely Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, Sarawak and Sabah were selected as a sample. The result of this study using PLS-SEM hypothesis testing showed that job engagement has a strong significant and positive direct relationship with the affective commitment. Job engagement was found to have a strong influence on increasing affective commitment among police officers. Therefore, police officers who give full participation to the task will be more loyal to and committed to the organization.

 

 

Asian Values from the Political Perspective

Wan Hashim Wan Teh

 

Abstract

This paper attempts to make a generalization on the values of Asian societies, though with examples of only from some selected Asian societies. By recognizing each society differs in details with one another, we shall argue that there is a general pattern and some similarities in terms of what we called Asian values among them. Most obvious to us is that religion and belief systems seem to form the core values of almost all Asian societies whether it is Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism and others, past and present. Secondly, in most societies too, religion seems to become an integral part of their political systems in the past and the present time. The transformative impact of modernization from the West does not seem to erode this traditional characteristics of most Asian societies.

 

 

Identification of Need in Capital Asset Procurement

Haliza Mohd Zahari, Wong Wai Loong, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, Khairunnisa Mardzuki, Amnah Saayah Ismail

 

Abstract

The main objectives of procurement are to acquire the right product with the right quantity. The procurement office gathers all the requirements and identifies possible suppliers. This involves obtaining the lowest purchase price for high quality products, ensuring suppliers reliability and maintain transparency in the procurement process. This paper reviews the current study of procurement process and explored the prerequisite in identifying the need before the procurement process begins based on qualitative studies through semi-structured interview and document analysis in the perspectives of Defence landscape. The findings revealed that the current procurement process should include the concept and requirement analysis before making decision on purchasing the capital asset. Based on the study, findings it will be benefitted to the ministry and other government agencies on requirement to be consider before purchasing a new capital asset.