Vol 2, Issue 2 (2019)

Journal of Defence Science, Engineering & Technology

Aggressive Movement Feature Detection using Color-based Approach on Thermal Images

Suzaimah Ramli, Tuan Khalisah Tan Zizi @ Tuan Zizi, Norulzahrah Mohd Zainudin, Nor Asiakin Hasbullah, Norshariah Abdul Wahab, Noor Afiza Mat Razali, Norazlin Ibrahim



Thermal imaging technology can be used to detect aggressive levels in humans based on the radiated heat from their face and body. Previous researches have proposed an approach to figure out human aggressive movements using Horn-Schunck optical flow algorithm in order to find the flow vector for all video frames but still not strong enough to confirm and verify the existence of an aggressive movement. In this work, we propose an approach by using thermal videos for frontal views of the human body which is face view. Then, video frames are collected using thermal camera and further extracted into thermal images. We use thermal imaging to monitor the face including prefrontal and periorbital region’s thermal variations and test whether it can offer a discriminative signature for detecting aggressiveness. We start by presenting an overview of 3400 thermal images extracted from 50 participants. The results obtained is promising where aggressive and non-aggressive features can be detected by using color-based approach.



Recent Advances Techniques for Detection of Organophosphates: A Review

Mohd Junaedy Osman, Wan Md. Zin Wan Yunus, Ong Keat Khim, Jahwarhar Izuan Abd. Rashid



This review summarizes the evolution that has been made for organophosphates (OPs) detection technique using conventional technique (lab-based) and compact technique (colorimetric and electrochemical). Right after introduction section, a first section covers the types, chemical structure and risks of OPs. Methods for detection using conventional and compact technique were discussed next. An additional section covers the limitation of conventional detection technique and advantages of compact detection technique are addressed. Several Tables are presented that give an overview on the OPs detection using conventional and compact detection technique. A concluding section addresses a brief idea on the detection method available nowadays.



Optimising the Mixing Factor Condition of Natural Cellulose/Epoxy Composite by using Response Surface Method

Wan Mohd Hanif Wan Ya’acob, Nur Amira Mamat Razali, Ainil Hawa Jasni, Rusaini Athirah Ahmad Rusdi, Emee Marina Salleh, Norhana Abdul Halim



The purpose of the study is to determine the optimal condition for mixing factors of natural cellulose or epoxy composite by using response surface method. Three mixing factors selected for the study were degassing agent content, stirring time, and sonication time. As a response, the fracture toughness of the composites was determined by using single edge notch bending test. The level of each factor was selected at 3 conditions which were low, medium, and high. The analysis of variance showed degassing agent content and sonication time were the most significant factors affecting the fracture toughness of the composite. The optimal conditions for mixing factors were 1.34 wt% degassing agent content, 5 minutes for stirring time, and 60 minutes for sonication time. The predicted fracture toughness was 1.6836 MPa.m0.5 with a desirability value of one. Three validation experiments were conducted to test the generated mathematical model and results showed the percentage difference was in the range of 6% to 15%.



Development of Wireless Sensor Technologies for Haze Smart Greenhouse

Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Megat Fariz Azril Zuhairi



Wireless Sensor Technologies (WST) is entering a new phase. Recent advances offer vast opportunities for research and development. On top of that, this is the consequence of the decreasing costs of ownership, the increase of smaller sensing devices in engineering and the achievements in radio frequency technology and digital circuits. The aim of this research was to combine the Wireless Sensor Network with ZigBee technology. It is expected to develop Haze Smart Greenhouse to control the temperature and humidity via remote automation. In addition, a GUI interface will be built to ease in controlling and managing the prototype through computer via wired and wireless technology. This Haze Smart Greenhouse prototype will be proposed to be developed and tested with operational via remote automation.



Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the use of Antibiotics among Students and Staff at a Local University in Malaysia

Adlina Suleiman, Hanisah N, Nurul Syazana M. Z .C, Sughashini S, Nur Farah Zulaikha M. F, Halyna Lugova, Aqil Mohammad Daher, Anne Jamaluddin



Inappropriate use of antibiotics (AB) is a significant public health problem. Understanding the patterns of AB-taking behaviour helps in designing educational campaigns to curb the overuse of AB. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of AB usage among students and staff at the National Defence University of Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2018. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Data were described by frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare KAP levels between students and staff. The level of significance was established as p ≤ 0.05. This study revealed that fair level of knowledge about AB usage did not translate into positive attitudes and high levels of practices. Overall, students demonstrated poorer KAP regarding indiscriminate usage of AB than staff. Specifically, students had poorer knowledge about its role in ineffectiveness of treatment (p=0.013) and additional burden of medical cost to the patient (p=0.001). Additionally, students were more likely than staff to give the leftover AB to their friends if they become sick (p=0.024). The findings of this study may serve as a preliminary insight on the development of an effective intervention to improve attitudes and practices regarding AB usage.