Zulfaqar JDSET

Journal of Defence Science, Engineering & Technology

The Effects of Ground Water Level Fluctuation on Slope Stability by using SlopeW

Jestin Jelani, Nur Amirah Adnan, Hapsa Husen, Mohd Nazrin Mohd Daud, Suriyadi Sojipto



This study is a continuation of previous research work conducted by the author on the stability of man-made slope constructed in UPNM campus. This paper presents the effects of ground water level (GWL) fluctuation on slope stability by using numerical simulation program, SlopeW. Ground water rises were simulated from 5m below the ground until 10m above the ground. Soil samples were taken from the site and tested in laboratory and then were incorporated into the program. It was found that the stability of the slope decreased with an increase of GWL. The critical slip surface formed by each case study is categorised as deep seated with circular and non-circular shapes. 

Cube Polygon: A New Modified Euler Method to Improve Electric Circuit Efficiency

Nurhafizah Moziyana Mohd Yusop, Nooraida Samsudin, Anis Shahida Mokhtar, Siti Rohaidah Ahmad, Aslina Baharum, Mohd Fahmi Mohammad Amran 



Euler method is a numerical order process for solving problems with the Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). It is a fast and easy way. While Euler offers a simple procedure for solving ODEs, problems such as complexity, processing time and accuracy have driven others to use more sophisticated methods. Improvements to the Euler method have attracted much attention resulting in numerous modified Euler methods. This paper proposes Cube Polygon, a modified Euler method with improved accuracy and complexity. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and easy implementation of the proposed method, several examples are presented. Cube Polygon’s performance was compared to Polygon’s scheme and evaluated against exact solutions using SCILAB. Results indicate that not only Cube Polygon has produced solutions that are close to identical solutions for small step sizes, but also for higher step sizes, thus generating more accurate results and decrease complexity. Also known in this paper is the general of the RL circuit due to the ODE problem.


A Study on Private Browsing in Windows Environment

Yamunah Kathiravan, Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran, Noor Afiza Mat Razali, Mohd Afizi Mohd Shukran, Norshahriah Abdul Wahab, Mohammad Adib Khairuddin, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Zuraidy Adnan, Muhammad Fairuz Abd Rauf



Privacy has always been a constant concern for many people. Internet users are often worried about the browsing information that is left on their storage media. Web browsers were later introduced with a new feature called private browsing to overcome this issue. The private browsing mode is expected to behave as normal browsing session but without storing any data such as browser cookies, history, cache and passwords on the local machine. Unfortunately, previous researchers concluded web browser often failed to provide the intended privacy protection to their user. Along the way of this reviewing process, the weakness and downside of previous web browser vendors have been identified 


Development of a Composite Pavement Performance Index to Monitor the Pavement Condition in UPNM

Muhammad Nur Arsyad Azman, Choy Peng Ng, Faridah Hanim Khairuddin, Neza Ismail, Wan Mohamed Syafuan Wan Sabri



Road surface condition of a pavement is one of the most important pavements features as it affects the dynamic load of vehicles travelling on it, the quality of travel and the vehicle operating cost. It is important to maintain a good road surface condition in order to promote safety and to reduce traffic accidents and injuries. The Composite Pavement Performance Index (CPPI) is one of the important tool to measure the performance or condition of a pavement. By conducting pavement evaluation using the CPPI, civil engineers could prioritize the maintenance and rehabilitation which usually incurred a huge cost. In University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM), there is no proper maintenance and rehabilitation scheduled for the roads as there is no performance evaluation tool available to measure the pavement performance or condition. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a Composite Pavement Performance Index (CPPI) to monitor the pavement condition and to rank the roads in UPNM. In order to develop the CPPI, road defects data were collected from 6 internal roads in UPNM. From the data collected, 4 major types of distresses: rutting, pothole, crocodile cracking and longitudinal cracking are more likely to occur on the pavements in UPNM. By measuring the growth of the distresses over a period of 6 months, the CPPI was developed to rank the roads in UPNM. Using the CPPI, this study demonstrated that the road connecting to the library building experienced the worst pavement deterioration in UPNM with a value of CPPI of 24. The condition of the pavement was classified as poor. Thus, it is recommended that the road connecting to the library building should be reconstructed to increase the safety for road users.


Characteristics of Photo-luminescent (PL) Powder Applied with Polyester Resin as Glow-In-The-Dark Emergency Signage

Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Vikneswaran Munikanan, Hapsa Husen, Zuliziana Suif, Maidiana Othman, Nordila Ahmad, Nur Amira Syuhaida Rizal



During a disaster, the rescuer must reach the disaster area within the fastest time with the help of navigation tools. However, there might be some obstacles during the night time that make the evacuation of the victims difficult especially due to the bad weather. Hence, an attempt to produce glow-in-the-dark emergency signage to ease the evacuation process and to enhance visibility during night time is necessary. In this present study, particular emphasis is given to investigate the characteristic of photo-luminescent (PL)powder applied with polyester resin as glow-in-the-dark emergency signage. Five samples of signage were fabricated with different percentage of PL powder, i.e. 20%, 40%. 60%, 80% and 100% and mixed with 150g polyester resin. Three types of luminance test were performed to check the workability of the samples. The tests are physical appearance, one-hours illuminance test and afterglow duration tests. The result showed that the maximum lux meter reading was recorded in Sample 5 with 6 lux luminosity and provided the longest glow duration of the sample before completely off after 12-hours. Results proved that the highest percentage of the PL powder content, the longer the afterglow duration will be achieved. It also noted that the polyester resin could be a good binder of PL powder for producing the glow-in-the-dark emergency signage. 











In Defence of Breastfeeding: A Key to Food Security and Sustainable Development Goals 


Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour Regarding Hydration and Fluid Intake Practice among National Defence University of Malaysia Athletes


Swarm Intelligence in Computer Network


Sifat Mekanikal Komposit Epoksi Nanozarah Tanah Liat (MMT) Terawat Diperkukuh Cecair Getah Asli Terepoksida


Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy at Hilly Area with Different Flight Altitude using UAV




Studies in Defense of Societal Anxiety to Electromagnetic Field Radiation from Telco Towers


The Synergy of Mixed Reality (MR) in Revolutionizing The Future Combat Visualization With GEOVISIONARY (GEO-VIS)


Defence Against Fire : Technology Acceptance Model of Innovative Grill Ladder For Terrace Houses


Defending Against Dengue : A Pilot Study of KAP on Dengue Prevention Among Residents in SS 3 Petaling Jaya


Vibration Analysis of a Jib Crane using Frame Structures Approach


Enablers for Building Design Outcome with High Maintainability Consideration from Design Engineers Perspectives


Construction Organisation Willingness to Adopt Building Information Modelling (BIM) As Design Development Tools


Alternative Materials for Improvement of Mechanical Performance, Thermal Performance and Mass of Pistol Barrel 


Pembangunan Sistem Maklumat Geografi Cawangan Kem Tentera Darat (Geotd)


Android Designed Malware Issues and Challenges: A Discussion on Detection and Evaluation Techniques


Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical behavior of SnPb solder alloy


Traceability Approach using Swarm Intelligence for Military Blockchain


Effects of Rainfall Intensities and Aggregate Size On Sediment Concentration and Hydraulic Parameters


Water Level Smart Monitoring System For Atmospheric Water Generator Tank Using Arduino


Application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) for Teaching Quality Evaluation at Defence Foundation Centre


Preliminary Studies on Ag2Nb4O11 Ceramics and Investigation on Purity and Thermal Stability of Ag2O Raw Material Used to Synthesis Ag2Nb4O11 Using Thermal and Phase Analysis Method





Application of Ultra-High Frequency Antenna for Partial Discharge Detection in Oil-Filled Power: A Review


Path Finding of Static Indoor Mobile Robot via AOR Iterative method using Harmonic Potentials


Pemantauan Tahap Hingar semasa Operasi Pesawat Sukhoi di No. 11 Skuadron


A Review on Techniques and Challenges in Sentiment Analysis of Student's Comments


Ascertaining the Important of Biomarker and Hyperbaric Medicine in Preventing the Complication of Hypoxia in High Altitude





Production of Biogas from Cow Dung and Chicken Manure using Yeast as Catalyst


Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical behavior of SnPb solder alloy 






Aggressive Movement Feature Detection using Color-based Approach on Thermal Images

Suzaimah Ramli, Tuan Khalisah Tan Zizi @ Tuan Zizi, Norulzahrah Mohd Zainudin, Nor Asiakin Hasbullah, Norshariah Abdul Wahab, Noor Afiza Mat Razali, Norazlin Ibrahim



Thermal imaging technology can be used to detect aggressive levels in humans based on the radiated heat from their face and body. Previous researches have proposed an approach to figure out human aggressive movements using Horn-Schunck optical flow algorithm in order to find the flow vector for all video frames but still not strong enough to confirm and verify the existence of an aggressive movement. In this work, we propose an approach by using thermal videos for frontal views of the human body which is face view. Then, video frames are collected using thermal camera and further extracted into thermal images. We use thermal imaging to monitor the face including prefrontal and periorbital region’s thermal variations and test whether it can offer a discriminative signature for detecting aggressiveness. We start by presenting an overview of 3400 thermal images extracted from 50 participants. The results obtained is promising where aggressive and non-aggressive features can be detected by using color-based approach.



Recent Advances Techniques for Detection of Organophosphates: A Review

Mohd Junaedy Osman, Wan Md. Zin Wan Yunus, Ong Keat Khim, Jahwarhar Izuan Abd. Rashid



This review summarizes the evolution that has been made for organophosphates (OPs) detection technique using conventional technique (lab-based) and compact technique (colorimetric and electrochemical). Right after introduction section, a first section covers the types, chemical structure and risks of OPs. Methods for detection using conventional and compact technique were discussed next. An additional section covers the limitation of conventional detection technique and advantages of compact detection technique are addressed. Several Tables are presented that give an overview on the OPs detection using conventional and compact detection technique. A concluding section addresses a brief idea on the detection method available nowadays.



Optimising the Mixing Factor Condition of Natural Cellulose/Epoxy Composite by using Response Surface Method

Wan Mohd Hanif Wan Ya’acob, Nur Amira Mamat Razali, Ainil Hawa Jasni, Rusaini Athirah Ahmad Rusdi, Emee Marina Salleh, Norhana Abdul Halim



The purpose of the study is to determine the optimal condition for mixing factors of natural cellulose or epoxy composite by using response surface method. Three mixing factors selected for the study were degassing agent content, stirring time, and sonication time. As a response, the fracture toughness of the composites was determined by using single edge notch bending test. The level of each factor was selected at 3 conditions which were low, medium, and high. The analysis of variance showed degassing agent content and sonication time were the most significant factors affecting the fracture toughness of the composite. The optimal conditions for mixing factors were 1.34 wt% degassing agent content, 5 minutes for stirring time, and 60 minutes for sonication time. The predicted fracture toughness was 1.6836 MPa.m0.5 with a desirability value of one. Three validation experiments were conducted to test the generated mathematical model and results showed the percentage difference was in the range of 6% to 15%.



Development of Wireless Sensor Technologies for Haze Smart Greenhouse

Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Megat Fariz Azril Zuhairi



Wireless Sensor Technologies (WST) is entering a new phase. Recent advances offer vast opportunities for research and development. On top of that, this is the consequence of the decreasing costs of ownership, the increase of smaller sensing devices in engineering and the achievements in radio frequency technology and digital circuits. The aim of this research was to combine the Wireless Sensor Network with ZigBee technology. It is expected to develop Haze Smart Greenhouse to control the temperature and humidity via remote automation. In addition, a GUI interface will be built to ease in controlling and managing the prototype through computer via wired and wireless technology. This Haze Smart Greenhouse prototype will be proposed to be developed and tested with operational via remote automation.



Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the use of Antibiotics among Students and Staff at a Local University in Malaysia

Adlina Suleiman, Hanisah N, Nurul Syazana M. Z .C, Sughashini S, Nur Farah Zulaikha M. F, Halyna Lugova, Aqil Mohammad Daher, Anne Jamaluddin



Inappropriate use of antibiotics (AB) is a significant public health problem. Understanding the patterns of AB-taking behaviour helps in designing educational campaigns to curb the overuse of AB. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of AB usage among students and staff at the National Defence University of Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2018. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Data were described by frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare KAP levels between students and staff. The level of significance was established as p ≤ 0.05. This study revealed that fair level of knowledge about AB usage did not translate into positive attitudes and high levels of practices. Overall, students demonstrated poorer KAP regarding indiscriminate usage of AB than staff. Specifically, students had poorer knowledge about its role in ineffectiveness of treatment (p=0.013) and additional burden of medical cost to the patient (p=0.001). Additionally, students were more likely than staff to give the leftover AB to their friends if they become sick (p=0.024). The findings of this study may serve as a preliminary insight on the development of an effective intervention to improve attitudes and practices regarding AB usage.

Towards the Data Security and Digital Evidence based Solution in Bangladesh Perspective

Shekh Abdullah-Al-Musa Ahmed, Nik Zulkarnaen Khidzir, Tan Tse Guan



Data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer. Data is often distinguished from programs. A program is a set of instructions that detail a task for the computer to perform. In this sense, data is thus everything that is not program code. Generally and in science, data is a gathered body of facts. Data security refers to protective digital privacy measures that are applied to prevent unauthorized access to computers data. Data security also protects data from corruption. However in this article would show a method for encryption text data by java program. It will encrypt is such a way that data could not read in plain text. Whereas Forensic science is a combine science. Scientific Evidence is a part of forensic science. By using the forensic science collecting information and present it on the court. So the meaning of evidence of science representing the understanding of collection information by establishes science. For example to create a DNA profile, following the establish protocol to make a DNA profile. So by testing it thousand times it will give the same result. This is the establish rule of science. When applying this rule in the court then it will call scientific Evidence. In Bangladesh most of the time it is seen that judiciary process is depends on confession based. Justice in the lower court does not depend on Digital forensic rather depend on Confession based. The definition of document is given in Section 3 at Evidence Act, 1872 and it is amended by ICT Act 2006 by Section 87 ,it is said that creating document by electronic is also a document .So any picture or video or audio are electronic document is a document .However for digital evidence based solution in this project using autopsy forensic tools, which will run on Kali Linux Forensic mode. It will generate a report paper and calculates MD5 hash values and confirms the integrity of the data before closing the files. Not all computer offence we can called cybercrime , but if a person created forged certificate or steal computer file , may called it as a Digital Crime .In real space , there are some physical force such as robbery , theft etc. But in Digital crime, there is no physical force, but doing the crime by technology.



An Implementation Study of Smart Library using Beacon Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

Syarifah Bahiyah Rahayu, Nur Diyana Kamarudin, Afiqah Mohammad Azahari, Arniyati Ahmad, Mohd Hazali Mohamed Halip



An average number of books for a normal library is around 10,000. Finding books in a library is a cumbersome process and time consuming especially in a huge library. Besides, the cost to embed RFID tag on each book is too expensive. To overcome the problem, this paper proposed a solution for finding location of library books. The solution is using i) a smartphone application to navigate location of book, and ii) LED Blinker with Beacon Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology on bookshelf. The case study for this research is Library of Jeneral Tun Ibrahim at Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) Library. This study also produces a new framework for finding books in libraries. The framework is a proof of concept that can be applied in the smart library system to assists library patrons in finding locations of books.



Preliminary Study on Colour Correction Analysis for Medical Imaging Application

Ahmad Salihin Ahmad Shukeri, Nur Diyana Kamarudin, Siti Noormiza Makhtar, Syarifah Bahiyah Rahayu, Suzaimah Ramli



This paper represents an effective method to enhance colour correction for tongue diagnosis. Colour Correction means exactly that, correcting the colour in image in the post production process. If the task of correcting an image is not in the workflow, it may be missing out on how great the image could look. It is one of the tasks of being a director of photography to get the best image to the colourist that can be. Understanding the camera’s limitation and using that knowledge on set is the first step in getting images that are much easier to correct later in the production workflow. Cameras record three colour responses of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) that are device dependent. In this work, preliminary research on tongue colour correction using polynomial regression algorithm has been implemented on Munsell colour checker for future tongue colour correction and diagnosis. The attained RGB colour space from Munsell Checker image converted to Lab colour space which is device independent colour space based on human visual system that is perceptually uniform. Then, several degrees of polynomial regression method are employed to provide comparative analysis on colour reproduction index to produce good quality of image after colour correction procedure. The experimental outcomes on colour checker show the colour difference is equal to 3.3289, ∆E*ab=3.3289 which is acceptable in digital image colour reproducibility.



Prototyping Digital Tongue Diagnosis System on Roborealm and Raspberry-Pi

Muhamad Hafiq Subandi, Nur Diyana Kamarudin, Muhammad Azrae Yusof, Azrena Abu Bakar



In Oriental Medicine, the examination of tongue body contributes to rich information in diagnosing some diseases. The practitioners use tongue body colour and other relevant features to predict the patient’s conditions and disease-oriented state. To reduce the ambiguity and other limitation caused by environment, an automatic tongue acquisition system has been introduced recently to assist the medical practitioner in daily clinical practices. However, most of these acquisition systems are not equipped with the intelligent decision support system to diagnose certain diseases using informative tongue bio-markers. In this paper, automatic tongue diagnosis prototype on Raspberry-pi is proposed to reduce human labour and to promote portability. To integrate with Internet of Things (IOT) technology, tongue image processing analysis including segmentation and colour classification techniques using k-means and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is executed on Raspberry-Pi that is equipped with High Definition (HD) camera via MATLAB Coder platform. This high definition camera will capture the real time image of a patient’s tongue to be segmented and analysed further. It is expected to provide health information that can be used as a pre-diagnosis system based on Oriental Medicine perspectives.



Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude regarding Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination among Preclinical Medical Students in the Malaysian Military University

Aye Aye Mon, Halyna Lugova, Myint Myint Maw



Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and sexually transmitted infections. Cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy among the women worldwide. The primary tool for prevention of cervical cancer is through the HPV vaccination. Pre-clinical year medical students must have background knowledge about HPV vaccination as they become healthcare providers, who will play an important role in influencing patients’ decision to receive vaccination. If their knowledge on the HPV is low this will result in poor attitude towards its prevention. This study was aimed to determine the knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among pre-clinical year medical students. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 83 pre-clinical year medical students in National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM). A set of self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the respondents to gather the data. Although almost half of respondents (46.3%) did not know the exact indication for HPV vaccination Most of them perceived that HPV vaccine can protect against the cervical cancer (64.4%) and it is as important as Hepatitis B or Haemophilus influenzae vaccines in Malaysia (54.9%). Substantial proportion of the respondents (47.6%) disagreed that HPV vaccination will diminish the need for annual Pap smear testing. The findings of this study show that being a pre-clinical year student does not warrant good knowledge and prevention of HPV infection. There is a need to obtain more information about HPV vaccination effects on cervical cancer in their medical school teaching and from the social media.

Nonparametric Robust Estimator for Slope Parameter in Linear Structural Relationship Model

Amel Saad Alshargawi, Abdul Ghapor Hussin, Ummul Fahri binti Abd Rauf



In this study, the slope parameter of linear structural relationship model is determined by using the proposed robust nonparametric method based on trimmed mean. This method is an upgrade to the nonparametric method that was introduced by Al-Nasser et al. (2005) by employing trimmed mean for all likely paired slopes rather than median slopes. Simulation study and real data were used to compare the proposed method’s performance versus the traditional maximum likelihood method. In the simulation study, based on both methods’ mean square error, it was inferred that the MLE method break down due to the presence of outliers even though its elaborate was not affected when there was no outlier in the data set. Based on the real life examples, it can be concluded that the performance of our proposed method was better in determining the slope parameter and thus provides a good alternative to MLE method when outliers are present.



Low Cost and Room Temperature Methane Detection using Multi Walled-Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Octadecanol

Nurjahirah Janudin, Norli Abdullah, Faizah Md Yasin, Mohd Hanif Yaacob, Muhammad Zamharir Ahmad, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Raja Nor Izawati Raja Othman, Noor Aisyah Ahmad Syah, Shafreeza Sobri, Noor Azilah Mohd Kasim



Multi walled-carbon nanotubes (CNT) functionalized with ester was used for detecting methane, CH4 gas at room temperature. Quartz substrate with interdigitated prepatterned gold electrodes was employed as transducers and drop casting method was used to deposit the CNT samples. The electrical properties of the functionalized CNT samples in the presence of CH4 gas were studied and the changes of resistance were recorded using digital multimeter. Concentration of CH4 gas was varied from 0.125 % to 1.0 %. The resistance variation of functionalized CNT increased with the concentration of tested gas. Sensor response of functionalized CNT was improved more than 10 % as compared to pristine CNT. CNT-Ester gives the higher sensitivity due to the presence of ester functional group which act as active site to react with CH4 gas. The fast response of functionalized CNT towards CH4 gas suggested that the functional group enhanced the rate of gas adsorption on sensing layer.



Carbon Nanotubes-based Gas Sensor in Detection of Methane Gas at Room Temperature

Nurjahirah Janudin, Norli Abdullah, Faizah Md Yasin, Mohd Hanif Yaacob, Muhammad Zamharir Ahmad, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Raja Nor Izawati Raja Othman, Noor Aisyah Ahmad Syah, Shafreeza Sobri, Noor Azilah Mohd Kasim



Room temperature carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based gas sensor was utilised in detection of methane, CH4 gas. The CNT was functionalized with amide group via Fischer esterification process and labelled as CNT-Amide. Silicon dioxide, SiO2 substrate with interdigitated prepatterned gold electrodes were employed as transducers and drop casting technique was used to deposit the multi walled-CNT samples. The electrical properties of the functionalized CNT samples in the exposure of CH4 gas are studied by recorded the changes of resistance using digital multimeter. Concentration of CH4 gas was varied from 1250 ppm to 10 000 ppm. The changes of electrical resistance of CNT-Amide increases with the concentration of tested gas. Sensor response of functionalized CNT are improved more than 10% as compared to pristine CNT. The sensitivity of CNT-Amide also better than CNT-Carboxyl due to the presence of nitrogen element in amide functional group which chemically active to react with CH4 gas. Additionally, fast response of CNT-Amide towards CH4 gas suggested that the functional group enhanced the rate of gas adsorption on sensing layer.



A Short Review of Polylactic Acid Blends Properties for Improvement and Innovation

Mohd Junaedy Osman, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Nabiilah Faris



Advanced technology in petrochemical-based polymer has brought many benefits to mankind. However, the use of nonbiodegradable plastics materials for disposable application such as food packaging and house whole appliances are significantly disturbing and damaging the earth ecosystem. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable plastic that is brittle. Because of this nature, PLA has a limitation in its usage. The common way to improve the toughness of PLA is via adding plasticizer. This review will provide brief account on recent developments in the synthesis of lactic acid (monomer of PLA) through biological route, PLA synthesis, unique material properties of PLA and modification of those by making copolymers and composites PLA absorption and degradation.



Synthesis of Epoxidized Fatty Hydrazides from Palm Olein: A Preliminary Study

Zakiah Jamingan, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Norli Abdullah, Ong Keat Khim



Epoxidized fatty hydrazides (EFHs) which have amine, amide and epoxide functional groups in their molecules are a versatile starting material for synthesizing of many industrially important compounds. In this report we describe the results of our preliminary study of synthesizing these compounds using a chemical reaction of epoxidized palm olein (EPO) and hydrazine monohydrate. The products were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique and CHN elemental analyser. The optimum reaction conditions for the hydrazide preparation were investigated by studying effect of each important reaction parameters on the product yields. The study shows that the optimum conditions to produce EFHs were using EPO to hydrazine monohydrate (mol ratio of 1 to 12), n-hexane as the solvent and at the temperature of 69 ̊C.



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