Format and Style

Journal of Defence Science, Engineering & Technology

The title of a manuscript should be concise, descriptive and preferably not exceeding 15 words. The manuscript must include an abstract, describing its main points within 150 - 250 words in English language.


Title and Authorship Information:

Title page should start with the type of manuscript (Research, Review Article, Short Communications, etc). This should be concise, short, specific and explain the nature of the work. The names of all authors (first name, middle initial, last name) including their departmental and institutional addresses should also be included. The name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail should be provided. An asterisk (*) should be added to the right of the corresponding author’s name. His or her affiliation should be indicated by superscripts 1, 2, 3,…… placed after each author’s name and before each affiliation.



The abstract must be a single unstructured paragraph of no more than 200 words describing the scope, hypothesis or rationale for the work and the main findings. Abstract should be written in the past tense and presented without subheadings. No reference should be cited in this section.


Key words:

Immediately after the abstract, about 4-7 key words should be provided, which will be used for indexing purposes. Key words should be separated by commas and words from title should avoid repeating as key words.



Abbreviations that are non-standard should be clearly defined in this field to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations must be defined at their first mention. Consistency of abbreviations should be ensured throughout the article. Footnotes and Endnotes should be properly numbered to ensure uniformity.



Introduction should be short and precise. It should describe the basic principles of research, earlier background work and the aim of the present study. Hypothesis to be tested should be specified. Summary of the results should be avoided. Extensive discussion of relevant literature should be included in the discussion section.


Materials and Methods:

Only new techniques and modifications to known methods need to be described in detail. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference. Include the name, postal town, code and country of the supplier or manufacturer of any chemical or apparatus not in common use. Appropriate statistical methods should be used and indicate the probability level (P) at which differences were considered significant. If data are presented in the text, state what they represent (e.g. means ± SEM). Indicate whether data were transformed before analysis. Specify any statistical computer programs used.



Results should be clear and concise using tables or figures when feasible. The text should elaborate on the tabular data. It should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Sufficient data with some index of variation attached should be presented for proper interpretation of the results of the experiment.



Discussion should be able to interpret the results clearly and concisely in relation to previous findings, whether in support, against, or simply as added data to provide the reader with a broad base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate.



The significant or unique findings should be highlighted in this section. Its content should not substantially duplicate the abstract. Recommendation might be given.



The Acknowledgments of people, grants, funding agency, etc should be brief.


References: In-text Reference Citations:

Use the author/date system of references. In the text, refer to the author(s) name (without initials) and year of publication:


Examples for a single author

Johnson (2004) has shown that ... This is in agreement in line with results obtained by several authors (Scholes, 1995; Alex, 1997; Nelson, 1998).

Examples for two authors

Smith and Giggs (2000) reported that... This was later found to be incorrect (Khan and Rahman, 2002).

Examples for three or more authors (use the first author’s name and then et al.)

Samule et al. (1999) stated that... Similar results were reported recently (Smith et al., 2003).


List of Reference

The list of references should include only those cited in the manuscript and arranged alphabetically by authors’ names. Titles of journals should be abbreviated. 'In press' can only be used to cite manuscripts actually accepted for publication in a journal. Citations such as manuscript in preparation' or manuscript submitted' are not permitted. The following format should be adhered to:


Journal Papers

Johnson AS, Khan AG, Akin SA, Chatterbee MA, Andrew KA, Cynthia TS (2009). Oxygen transfer effects on recombinant benzaldehyde lyase production. Biochem. Biotechnol. Res. 1:115.


Hernández-Herrero MM, Duflos G, Malle P, Bouquelet S (2003). Collagenase activity and protein hydrolysis as related to spoilage of iced cod (Gadus morhua). Food Res. Inter. 36(2):141-147.


Text Book

Nelson Z, 1999. Analysis and Modeling of Digital Systems. 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill, New York. pp: 632. Cole MJ, John LT and Stephen A, 2009. Biochemistry. 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman, New York. pp.580.


Book Chapter

Khan HA, 1996. Computer-Aided Design Databases. In: New Directions for Database Systems, Ariav G and Clifford J, (Eds.), Intellect Books, Norwood, NJ, pp: 110-123.


Ashie INA and Lanier TC, 2000. Transglutaminases in Seafood Processing. In: Seafood Enzymes Utilization and Influence on Postharvest Seafood Quality, Haard NF and Simpson BK (Eds.), Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, NY, pp: 271-275.


Conference Proceedings

Magott J, Skudlarski K, 1989. Combining Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets and PERT Networks For The Performance Evaluation Of Concurrent Processes. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models, Dec. 11-13, IEEE Xplore Press, Japan, pp: 249-256.


Baird-Parker AC, Baillie MAH, 1974. The Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by Nitrite and Sodium Chloride. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrite in Meat Products, Sep.10-14, Zeist, the Netherlands, pp: 268.

For manuscript template, please click the link provided: 


ZULFAQAR Journal of Defence Management, Social Science & Humanities (JDMSSH)

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia

Kem Sungai Besi

57000 Kuala Lumpur